Āmnāya Daśa Mūla

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This “Āmnāya Daśa Mūla” was the first of 4 short articles by Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura probably written in the 1890’s. These articles present the ten principle philosophical truths of Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava siddhānta as found in the Vedic Upaniṣads, the Bhagavad-gīta, the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam and the Caitanya-caritāmṛta. In these essays, Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura gives his own translation to each verse and incorporates his commentary into it. The Ṭhākura goes into greater depth on this topic in other works such as Vaiṣṇava-siddhāṇta-mālā, Śrīman Mahāprabhura Śikṣa, Jaiva-dharma etc.

Āmnāya Daśa Mūla

by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura
(translated by Swami B.V. Giri)
1- Pramāṇam (Evidence)

asya mahato bhūtasya niḥśvasitam etad yad ṛg ityādi
(Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 2.4.10)

ṛg-vedaṁ bhagavo’dhyemi yajur-vedaṁ sāma-vedam ātharvaṇaṁ
caturtham itihāsaṁ purāṇaṁ pañcamaṁ vedānāṁ vedam ity ādi
(Chāndogya Upaniṣad 7.1.2)

The four Vedas, the Itihāsas, Purāṇas, Upaniṣads, aphorisms, purports and so on have all emanated from the breath of the Infinite Supreme Controller. The Mahābhārata, Rāmāyaṇa and similar literatures are Itihāsas. There are eighteen principal Purāṇas, headed by Śrīmad Bhāgavatam and eighteen Upa-Purāṇas. Out of the prominent one hundred and eight, the principal Upaniṣads are eleven: the Īśa, Kena, Kaṭha, Praśna, Muṇḍaka, Māṇḍūkya, Taittirīya, Aitareya, Chāndogya, Bṛhad-āraṇyaka and Śvetāśvatara. Ślokas are poetic compositions, with specific meters, composed by ṛṣis, philosophers. Sūtras are concise aphorisms written by the principal spiritual preceptors, ācāryas. And anuvyakhyas are written by the ācāryas as purports to the sūtras. However, the principal meaning of the word āmnāya is Veda.


Prameyam (The foundation of Sambandha-abhidheya-prayojana, verses 2-8)

Sambandhaḥ

2-Kṛṣṇaḥ (Kṛṣṇa the Supreme Lord)

taṁ tv aupaniṣadaṁ puruṣaṁ pṛcchāmi (Bṛhad Āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 3.9.26)

I am inquiring about that Supreme Person spoken of in the Upaniṣads.

śyāmāc chabalaṁ prapadye śabalāc chyāmaṁ prapadye (Chāndogya Upaniṣad 8.13.1)

Śavala is the name of the variegated svarūpa-śakti of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. By taking shelter of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, one attains the shelter of the concentrated bhāva of the hlādinī, and by taking shelter of concentrated bhāva of the hlādinī, one attains the shelter of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

ekaṁ santaṁ bahudha dṛṣyamānam

The one non-dual substance is seen as many due to the transformation of His many energies.


3 – kṛṣṇa-śaktiḥ (Kṛṣṇa’s Potencies)

na tasya kāryaṁ karaṇaṁ ca vidyate
na tat-samaś cābhyadhikaś ca dṛśyate
parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śruyate
svābhāvikī jñāna-bala-kriyā ca
(Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 6.8)

Kṛṣṉa does not require the help of material senses to perform any activity, because He does not have a material body or material senses His form is completely spiritual in all respects. Therefore, He can be present everywhere, unlike the material body which is limited in its presence. Although the beautiful form of Kṛṣṇa is unlimited and always present everywhere, He is absorbed in His eternal pastimes in His spiritual abode, Śrī Vṛndāvana. Thus He is the Supreme Absolute Truth. Any other form cannot be equal to or greater than Him because His own form is the source of inconceivable potency. His potency is known as inconceivable because the limited human intelligence cannot fathom it. This inconceivable energy is called parā-śakti, superior energy. Although this inherent energy of His is one, it is manifested in three ways as knowledge potency (jñāna or samvit), power potency (bala or sandhinī) and active potency (kriyā or hlādinī).


4-Kṛṣna-dhāma-rasaḥ (Kṛṣṇa’s abode and mellows)

divye brahma-pure hy eṣa vyomny ātmā pratiṣṭhitaḥ (Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad 2.2.7)

The Supreme Consciousness is eternally existing in the transcendental realm of the spiritual sky known as Brahma-pura.

raso vai saḥ (Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.7)

The Supreme Absolute Truth is the embodiment of rasa. The nature of rasa is as follows. When one’s inclination toward the Lord comes through the stages of śraddhā, niṣṭhā, ruci, āsakti and becomes rati, then it is called sthāyī-bhāva. When the four ingredients of rasavibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva and vyabhicārī-bhāva – are combined with this sthāyībhāva then the rati, called the sthāyī-bhāva, brings one to the amazing pleasurable state and becomes bhakti-rasa.


5-jīvaḥ (the living being)

yathāgneḥ kṣudrā visphuliṅgā vyuccaranti evam
evāsmād ātmanaḥ sarvāni bhūtāni vyuccaranti
(Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 2.1.20)

Just like the small sparks that emanate from a fire, all living beings emanate from Lord Kṛṣṇa who is the Supersoul of all beings.

tasya vā etasya puruṣasya dve eva sthāne bhāvata
idaṁ ca paraloka-sthānaṁ ca sandhyaṁ tṛtīyaṁ
svapna-sthānam tasmin sandhye sthāne tiṣṭhan ete
ubhe sthāne paśyati idaṁ ca paraloka-sthānaṁ ca
(Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 4.3.9)

These living entities can reside in two places – in this material world and in the spiritual world that has to be searched out. The jīva is situated in the third place which is like a dream and is the juncture of the two worlds. Being situated in that juncture, he can see both the material and spiritual universes.


6-māyā-baddha-jīvaḥ (those jīvas who are bound by māyā)

tasmiṁś cānyo māyayā sanniruddham
(Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 4.9)

In this material world the jīvas, who are different from Īśvara, are bound by māyā.


7-baddha-mukta-jīvaḥ (Those jīvas who are free from bondage)

samāne vṛkṣe puruṣo nimagno
‘nīśāya śocati muhyamānaḥ
juṣṭaṁ yadā paśyati anyam īśam
asya mahimānam iti vīta-śokaḥ
(Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad 3.1.2 and Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 4.7)

The jīva situated in the tree is bewildered by māyā and thus laments and falls down. When he gets to see Īśvara as the object of his service, then the jīva gives up his lamentation and attains to the glories of the Lord.


8-paraspara-sambandhaḥ (Their relationship with each other )

īśāvasyam idaṁ sarvaṁ
yat kiñca jagatyāṁ jagat
(Iśopaniṣad 1)

Everything that exists in this world is connected to the Lord’s energies. When one sees the connection of everything with the Lord’s spiritual potency then he does not enjoy separately from the Lord anymore. If the living entity, focused on his spiritual enlightenment, accepts whatever is necessary for the maintenance of the body as the Lord’s mercy (prasāda), then he will not fall down again.

yato va imāni bhūtāni jāyante yena jātāni jivanti
yat prayanty abhisaṁviśanti ca itāadi
(Taittirīya Upaniṣad 3.1)

“From whom all living beings emanate” – this statement confirms that the Lord is the source of everything (apādāna-kāraka); “By whom everything that was born remains alive” – this statement recognizes the Lord as the supreme instrument (karaṇa-kāraka); “Into whom everything goes and enters” – this statement proves that the Lord is the supreme shelter of everything (adhikaraṇa-kāraka). The Absolute Truth is described by these three characteristics. They are His special features (viśeṣa) and therefore the Lord is always endowed with qualities (sa-viśeṣa).


Abhideyaṁ

9-nava-vidha-bhaktiḥ (The nine processes of devotion)

ātma vā are draṣṭavyaḥ srotavyo mantavyo nididhyāsitavyaḥ ityādi
(Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad, 4.5.6)

Oh, this ātmā should be observed, heard about, thought of and continuously meditated upon with one-pointed attention.


Prayojanaṁ

10-premaḥ (love of Kṛṣṇa)

yenāhaṁ nāmṛtā syāṁ kim ahaṁ tena kuryām
(Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upaniṣad 2.4.3)

Maitreyi said: What should I do with that thing that obstructs my being immortal?

rasaṁ hy evāyaṁ labdhvanandī bhavati
(Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2. 7)

Having attained this embodiment of rasa one becomes blissful.

ānandam brahmaṇo vidvān na bibheti kutaścana
(Taittirīya Upaniṣad 2.4)

Knowing the Supreme Brahman as bliss, one is not afraid of miseries, such as living in the womb of a mother.

(Āmnāya Daśa Mūla was translated from the original Bengali text by Swami B.V. Giri)
The Secret of the Lord’s Appearance According to the GītāThe Secret of the Lord’s Appearance According to the Gītā (Gītāra Janma Rahasya)
The Attibaris of OrissaThe Attibaris of Orissa

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