Bhagavad-Gita-Rasika-ranjanaBhagavad-gita - Chapter One
Bhagavad-Gita-Rasika-ranjanaBhagavad-gita - Chapter Three

Sāṅkhya Yogaḥ
(The Yoga of Analysis)


With the Rasika Rañjana Commentary by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura

TEXT 1
sañjaya uvāca
taṁ tathā kṛpayāviṣṭam aśru-pūrṇākulekṣaṇam
viṣīdantam idaṁ vākyam uvāca madhusūdanaḥ

Sañjaya said: Seeing Arjuna overcome with compassion, his eyes full of tears and with a sad face, Bhagavān Vāsudeva spoke.

TEXT 2
śrī bhagavān uvāca
kutas tvā kaśmalam idaṁ viṣame samupasthitam
anārya-juṣṭam asvargyam akīrti-karam arjuna 

Bhagavāṇ said: O Arjuna, at this crucial time of war, how did such bewilderment arise which is worthy of an anārya (uncivilised man) and an obstacle in attaining Svarga?

TEXT 3
klaibyaṁ mā sma gamaḥ pārtha naitattvayyupapadyate
kṣudraṁ hṛdaya-daurbalyaṁ tyaktvottiṣṭha parantapa 

 O Pārtha, son of Kuntī, do not resort to such an impotent nature – it does not become you. O Parantapa, abandon this petty weakness of heart. Stand and fight!

TEXT 4
arjuna uvāca
kathaṁ bhīṣmam ahaṁ saṅkhye droṇaṁ ca madhusūdana
iṣubhiḥ pratiyotsyāmi pūjārhāv ari-sūdana 

Arjuna said: O conqueror of enemies! O Madhusūdana, How can I engage in war and shoot arrows at the revered Bhīṣma and my guru, Droṇa?

TEXT 5
gurūn ahatvā hi mahānubhāvān
śreyo bhoktuṁ bhaikṣyam apīha loke
hatvārtha kāmāṁs tu gurūn ihaiva
bhuñjīya bhogān rudhira-pradigdhān 

It would be preferable for me to maintain my life in this world by begging alms than by killing such venerable gurus. By killing such gurus, the desires and wealth that we enjoy will be stained with their blood.

TEXT 6
na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīyo
yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ
yān eva hatvā na jijīviṣāmas
te’vasthitāḥ pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ 

As a result, I do not know whether victory and defeat is more dignified in this war; this is because we do not wish to live by killing the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, yet they are now standing in front of us.

TEXT 7
kārpaṇya-doṣopahata-svabhāvaḥ
pṛcchāmi tvāṁ dharma-sammūḍha-cetāḥ
yac chreyaḥ syān niścitaṁ brūhi tan me
śiṣyas te’haṁ śādhi māṁ tvāṁ

At this moment, my mind is bewildered in regards to my dharma, I am giving up my natural heroic tendency, and I am overwhelmed by weakness and guilt. I am asking You, please give me instructions on what is best for me. I am your disciple. I have taken refuge in You.

TEXT 8
na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyādh
yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām
avāpya bhūmāv asapatnam ṛddhaṁ
rājyaṁ surāṇām api cādhipatyam 

Even if I attain a peaceful and prosperous kingdom, or sovereignty over the Devas, I do not see any way out of this sorrow that is subduing my senses.

TEXT 9
sañjaya uvāca
evam uktvā hṛṣīkeśaṁ guḍākeśaḥ parantapa
na yotsya iti govindam uktvā tūṣṇīṁ babhūva ha

Sañjaya said: Then, Arjuna, the vanquisher of enemies and conqueror of sleep, said to Hṛṣīkeśa, “Govinda, I will not fight,” and remained silent.

TEXT 10
tam uvāca hṛṣīkeśaḥ prahasann iva bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye viṣīdantam idaṁ vacaḥ

O Dhṛtarāṣṭra, then in the midst of both armies, Hṛṣīkeśa spoke to Pārtha.

TEXT 11
śrī bhagavān uvāca
aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṁ prajñā-vādāṁś ca bhāṣase
gatāsūn agatāsūṁś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ 

 Bhagavān said: Arjuna, you are speaking like a jñānī, yet you are lamenting for something which is unworthy of grief. That is because those who are learned lament neither for the living or for the dead.

TEXT 12
na tvevāhaṁ jātu nāsaṁ na tvaṁ neme janādhipāḥ
na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ sarve vayamataḥ param 

The ātmā is indestructible, therefore there is no reason for lamentation. There are two ātmās—the Paramātmā and the jīvātmā. I am the Paramātmā, and you and all these kings are jīvātmās. It is not that Myself, you, and all these kings did not exist in the past; it is not that any of us will cease to exist after. In other words, we exist now, we existed before, and we shall exist in the future.

TEXT 13
dehino’smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā
tathā dehāntara prāptir dhīras tatra na muhyati

One who possesses a body must go through childhood, youth and old age in this form, yet the dehī (the ātmā within the body) exists unchanged. Just as when he gives up the physical body, the dehī’s existence is never destroyed. Rather, just as a child attains happiness and bliss when adolescence dawns, in the same way, upon giving up a body riddled with old age, the ātmā of a devotee of Bhagavān becomes glorious and blissful. Thus, when the body is finished, nobody – in other words, those persons who are dhīra (wise and sober) – lament.

TEXT 14
mātrā-sparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇa-sukha-duḥkha-dāḥ
āgamāpāyino’nityās tāṁs titikṣasva bhārata

Mātrā means that the happiness and distress experienced when the senses come in contact with the sense-objects are like the appearance of winter and summer – they are temporary. O son of Kuntī, the dharma prescribed by the śāstra is that one should tolerate them all. Fighting is the natural dharma of a kṣatriya. If it is abandoned, then in time it can create great danger.

TEXT 15
yaṁ hi na vyathayanty ete puruṣaṁ puruṣarṣabha
sama-duḥkha-sukhaṁ dhīraṁ so’mṛtatvāya kalpate 

O best of men, that person who is never afflicted by heat, cold etc., and considers happiness and distress as equal, such a dhīra is eternal – in other words, he is qualified to receive liberation.

TEXT 16
nāsato vidyate bhāvo nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ
ubhayor api dṛṣṭo’ntas tv anayos tattva-darśibhiḥ 

Lamentation, bewilderment etc. are not ātmā-dharma (the intrinsic qualities of the ātmā) and only take shelter in the material body. They have no existence in the eternal nature of the jīva. The inherent nature of the jīva can never be destroyed. Thus, the tattva-darśīs (those who have experienced reality) have analysed the difference between that which is sat (real) and that which is asat (temporary). Therefore, only the material bodies of Bhīṣma and the other jīvātmās can be destroyed.

TEXT 17
avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṁ tatam
vināśam avyayasyāsya na kaścit kartum arhati

As the ātmā, that indestructible jīva permeates the entire human body, and being extremely finite, he is smaller than the atom and nourishes the body just like a strong medicine. He has the capacity to pervade the whole body. Because he is able to travel to the higher planets (Svarga), the lower planets (Naraka), and amongst the various species, he is known as sarva-ga (‘one who goes everywhere’). He is imperishable and eternal. No one can destroy him.

TEXT 18
antavanta ime dehā nityasyoktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ
anāśino’prameyasya tasmād yudhyasva bhārata 

All these bodies are temporary, but the jīvātmā within these bodies cannot be destroyed. That jīvā or jīvātmā, due to its subtle nature, is immeasurable. Therefore, O Bhārata, do not abandon your natural dharma prescribed by śāstra. Fight!

TEXT 19
ya enaṁ vetti hantāraṁ yaś cainaṁ manyate hatam
ubhau tau na vijānīto nāyaṁ hanti na hanyate 

One who thinks that a jīva kills another jīva, or that a jīva can be killed by another jīva, knows nothing. The jīvātmā can neither kill anyone nor be killed by anyone. O my friend Arjuna, you are an ātmā, you are not the killer, and you cannot be killed. There is no need to fear that ignorant people will say that you killed your elders.

TEXT 20
na jāyate mriyate vā kadācin
nāyaṁ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ
ajo nityaḥ śāśvato’yaṁ purāṇo
na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre

In regards to the jīvātmā, aja means that he is without birth. Nitya means that he is present at all times. The three phases of time, past, future and present, cannot destroy him. He has no birth or death, nor does he undergo continuous growth. He is the oldest, yet he is eternally youthful. He cannot be killed. He has no relation to this body which is subject to birth, death etc.

TEXT 21
vedāvināśinaṁ nityaṁ ya enam ajam avyayam
kathaṁ sa puruṣaḥ pārtha kaṁ ghātayati hanti kam

O Pārtha, does a person who knows the jīva to be indestructible, eternal, unborn, and imperishable kill anyone? No. Does he instruct anyone to kill?

TEXT 22
vāsāṁsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya
navāni gṛhṇāti naro’parāṇi
tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇāny
anyāni saṁyāti navāni dehī

Just as men wear new clothes by giving up their worn-out clothes, so too the dehī also leaves the worn-out body and accepts a new form.

TEXT 23
nainaṁ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṁ dahati pāvakaḥ
na cainaṁ kledayanty āpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ 

The jīvātmā cannot be cut by weapons, it cannot be burnt in fire, It cannot be moistened by water and it cannot be dried by air.

TEXT 24-25
acchedyo’yam adāhyo’yam akledyo’śoṣya eva ca
nityaḥ sarva-gataḥ sthāṇur acalo’yaṁ sanātanaḥ

avyakto’yam acintyo’yam avikāryo’yam ucyate
tasmād evaṁ viditvainaṁ nānuśocitum arhasi 

This jīvātmā cannot be cut, he cannot be burned, he cannot be moistened; he is nitya (eternal,) sarva-gata (omnipresent), sthānu (unchangeable) and acala (immovable), in other words, he is steady. He is sanātana – In other words, he is ever-existing. He is avyakta (unmanifest), acintya (inconceivable), and is said to be avikārya (unchangeable). He is called avyakta because he is extremely subtle. He is called acintya because he naturally pervades the body. Because he is unaffected by the six kinds of transformations, he is called avikārya. Being aware of these characteristics of the jīvātmā, you should give up your lamentation.

TEXT 26
atha cainaṁ nitya-jātaṁ nityaṁ vā manyase mṛtam
tathāpi tvaṁ mahā-bāho naivaṁ śocitum arhasi 

O mighty-armed one, even if you consider that the jīva is eternally born and eternally dies, then there is still no reason to lament like this.

TEXT 27
jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur dhruvaṁ janma mṛtasya ca
tasmād aparihārye’rthe na tvaṁ śocitum arhasi 

When one is born, then after his activities are over, he must surely die, and when one dies, he must take birth again in order to experience the results of his actions. Thus, you should not grieve over your duty which is inevitable and cannot be abandoned.

TEXT 28
avyaktādīni bhūtāni vyakta-madhyāni bhārata
avyakta-nidhanāny eva tatra kā paridevanā

O Bhārata, all the living entities are unmanifest before birth, and in the immediate time between birth and death they become manifest for some time, and again upon death, they again become unmanifest. Then what is the need to lament? Although this opinion is not accepted by sādhus, even if you accept this conclusion, you should still fight for the sake of protecting kṣatriya dharma.

TEXT 29
āścarya-vat paśyati kaścid enam
āścarya-vad vadati tathaiva cānyaḥ
āścarya-vac caiman anyaḥ śṛṇoti
śrutvāpy enaṁ veda na caiva kaścit

Some people see the jīvātmā as amazing, some people describe it as amazing and some people hear knowledge about it as amazing, and some people do not understand it even after hearing about it. Due to this kind of bewilderment concerning the intrinsic nature of the jīvātmā, unnecessary elements such as jaḍavāda (materialism), anitya-caitanya-vāda (the concept of temporary consciousness) and kevalādvaita-vāda (exclusive impersonalism) have arisen.

TEXT 30
dehī nityam avadhyo’yaṁ dehe sarvasya bhārata
tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni na tvaṁ śocitum arhasi

In reality, the embodied jīvātmā exists eternally and cannot be killed, therefore, it is unnecessary for you to lament for any living entity.

TEXT 31
sva-dharmam api cāvekṣya na vikampitum arhasi
dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyo’nyat kṣatriyasya na vidyate

If you observe your own svadharma (inherent nature), then you will no longer feel afraid. This is because there is no activity more meritorious for a kṣatriya than to fight a war of dharma. Liberated (mukta) or bound (baddha) – the inherent nature of the jīva is different in these two states of existence. In the liberated state, the jīva’s inherent nature is devoid of any mundane designations (upādhis). When the jīva is bound by matter, his inherent nature is connected to mundane designations to a certain extent. In the bound state, the jīva has various abnormalities. In such an inconsistent condition, his inherent nature accepts various forms which are essential. In this state, when a jīva is situated within a human body, if he follows his inherent nature by engaging in varṇāśrama-dharma, then that is beneficial. Therefore, another name for varṇāśrama-dharma is sva-dharma (inherent nature). What could be better than fighting for those persons who have attained the inherent nature of a kṣatriya?

TEXT 32
yadṛcchayā copapannaṁ svarga-dvāra-mapāvṛtam
sukhinaḥ kṣatriyāḥ pārtha labhante yuddham īdṛśam

O Pārtha, happy are those kṣatriyas who fight in this battlefield, which is like an open gate to Svarga which they can enter at will.

TEXT 33
atha cet tvam imaṁ dharmyaṁ saṅgrāmaṁ na kariṣyasi
tataḥ sva-dharmaṁ kīrtiṁ ca hitvā pāpam avāpsyasi

As a result, if you do not engage in this war of dharma, you will be deprived of your dharma and reputation, and you will incur pāpa.

TEXT 34
akīrtiṁ cāpi bhūtāni kathayiṣyanti te’vyayām
sambhāvitasya cākīrtir maraṇād atiricyate 

In that case, people will always speak of your infamy. Infamy for a well-established person is more painful than death.

TEXT 35
bhayād raṇād uparataṁ maṁsyante tvāṁ mahā-rathāḥ
yeṣāṁ ca tvaṁ bahu-mato bhūtvā yāsyasi lāghavam 

All the mahā-rathas that have glorified you will consider you to be inferior. They will think that you have fled the battle out of fear.

TEXT 36
avācya-vādāṁś ca bahūn vadiṣyanti tavāhitāḥ
nindantas tava sāmarthyaṁ tato duḥkhataraṁ nu kim

Your enemies will speak harshly about you, condemning your ability; What could be more painful than this for you? What could be more distressful to you?

TEXT 37
hato vā prāpsyasi svargaṁ jitvā vā bhokṣyase mahīm
tasmād uttiṣṭha kaunteya yuddhāya kṛtaniścayaḥ

O Son of Kuntī, if you are killed in battle you will gain Svarga and if you win, you will enjoy this world. Therefore, get up and fight with determination.

TEXT 38
sukha-duḥkhe same kṛtvā lābhālābhau jayājayau
tato yuddhāya yujyasva naivaṁ pāpam avāpsyasi

Consider happiness and distress, profit and loss, victory and defeat as equal. if you fight, you will not have to incur pāpa.

TEXT 39
eṣā te’bhihitā sāṅkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṁ śṛṇu
buddhyā yukto yayā pārtha karma-bandhaṁ prahāsyasi

Sāṅkhya, in other words, intelligence in connection with knowledge is being explained. Now listen about bhakti-yoga in connection with intelligence. O Pārtha, if you connect knowledge with bhakti you will be capable of destroying saṁsāra (the cycle of repeated birth and death). Later, it will become clear that buddhi-yoga (connecting with one’s intelligence) is of one type. When that buddhi-yoga is within the confines of activity, then it is called karma-yoga. When it transcends the limitations of action and is confined within the limits of knowledge, then it is known as jñāna-yoga or sāṅkhya-yoga. When they both surpass their limitations and touch bhakti, then that is called bhakti-yoga, or pure buddhi-yoga.

TEXT 40
nehābhikrama-nāśo’sti pratyavāyo na vidyate
svalpam apy asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt

There is no failure in the practice of bhakti-yoga, nor is there any diminution in engaging in it.  One who engages in it even slightly is delivered from the greatest fear, which comes in the form of saṁsāra.

TEXT 41
vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekeha kuru-nandana
bahu-śākhā hyanantāś ca buddhayo’vyavasāyinām 

Bhakti-yoga is of two types – (1) direct bhakti-yoga consisting of śravaṇa, kīrtana etc. and (2) indirect bhakti-yoga in the form of selflessly offering one’s work to Śrī Kṛṣṇa (niṣkāma-karma). I am the objective of direct bhakti-yoga. Thus, intelligence in relation to this is vyavasāyātmikā or niścayātmikā (resolute determination). The intelligence of those who are without such resolute determination in Me is based upon karma-yoga; it is firmly fixed on many mundane things, many-branched and has unlimited imperceptible desires. They fear that their activities will be destroyed or reduced.

TEXT 42-43
yām imāṁ puṣpitāṁ vācaṁ pravadanty avipaścitaḥ
veda-vāda-ratāḥ pārtha nānyad astīti vādinaḥ

kāmātmānaḥ svarga-parā janma-karma-phala-pradām
kriyā-viśeṣa-bahulāṁ bhogaiśvarya-gatiṁ prati 

Such irresolute persons are ignorant and always take pleasure in veda-vāda-rata, in other words, they are always engaged in semantics without knowing the principle meaning of the Vedas. They expect results from their activities, pray for the attainment of Svarga and desire to perform rituals that results in a good birth. They wish for the happiness found in opulence and are attached to hearing the delightful flowery words of the Vedas (which are consequently poisonous).

TEXT 44
bhogaiśvarya-prasaktānāṁ tayāpahṛta-cetasām
vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau na vidhīyate

Those who are completely fixed in sense-enjoyment and the pleasures of wealth are ignorant fools whose intelligence never attains samādhi, in other words, devotion to Bhagavān.

TEXT 45
traiguṇya-viṣayā vedā nistrai-guṇyo bhavārjuna
nirdvandvo nitya-sattva-stho niryoga-kṣema ātmavān

There are two types of subjects in the śāstra—namely, uddiṣṭa-viṣaya and nirdiṣṭa-viṣayaUddiṣṭa-viṣaya refers to the ultimate goal of the śāstra. That subject which refers to the method of attaining that goal is called nirdiṣṭa-viṣaya. When the ultimate goal (uddiṣṭa) is to locate the Arundhatī star, one should first find a bigger star which is nearby – that is the method (nirdiṣṭa). The Vedas refer to the nirguṇa-tattva (that principle which is beyond matter) as the uddiṣṭa, but nirguṇa-tattva is not easily perceived, so first the nirdiṣṭa of saguṇa-tattva (that principle bound by matter) is given. This is why all the Vedas first identify the three modes of māyāsattva, rajas and tama (goodness, passion, and ignorance) – as their primary topic.

O Arjuna, do not remain bound to the nirdiṣṭa-viṣaya, but accept that nirguṇa-tattva which is the uddiṣṭa-viṣaya, beyond the modes of nature. In some places in the Vedas, activities in the modes of passion and ignorance are recommended, in some places knowledge in the mode of goodness is recommended, and in some exceptional cases nirguṇa-bhakti is recommended. Free yourself from those dualities that are produced by the modes of nature such as honour, dishonour etc. Associate with those who are nitya-sattva, in other words, My devotees, and give up any inquiry related to the paths of jñāna, karma and mundane welfare. With the help of buddhi-yoga (the state of transcendental intelligence), attain that platform beyond the modes of nature.

TEXT 46
yāvān artha udapāne sarvataḥ samplutodake
tāvān sarveṣu vedeṣu brāhmaṇasya vijānataḥ

Udapāna refers to a very small well, and sampluodaka refers to a very large reservoir of water. Activities such as bathing, washing clothes, etc. are done separately in a single well, but in a large body of water all activities can be performed nicely. The Vedaśāstra mentions which Devatā to worship in particular circumstances to attain a certain result. However, upon analysing all the Vedas it is concluded that I am the only Supreme Person full of six opulences (Bhagavān) and all results can be attained through My worship. Such an explanation has been  concluded by those brāhmaṇas who are well-versed in the Vedas. Those that possess niścayātmika-buddhi (resolute intelligence) naturally take up the exclusive worship of Bhagavān.  

TEXT 47
karmaṇy evādhikāras te mā phaleṣu kadācana
mā karma-phala-hetur bhūr mā te saṅgo’stv akarmaṇi

Karma, akarma and vikarma – these are the three types of activity to be considered. Vikarma refers to impious deeds and akarma refers to not acting according to one’s natural prescribed duties – both of these are extremely inauspicious. You should have no desire to gravitate towards either of these. Even if you give up akarma and vikarma, you should engage in your activities carefully. There are three categories of activity, namely nitya-karma (regular activities), naimittika-karma (occasional activities) and kāmya-karma (activities performed for desired results). Amongst these, kāmya-karma produces inauspiciousness. Those who engage in kāmya-karma become bound to the results of their actions. Thus, for your benefit I am telling you, do not take shelter of kāmya-karma and become bound by its concomitant results. You have a right to perform your svadharma, but you have no right to enjoy the results of your actions. Those that practice bhaktiyoga should engage in nitya and naimittika activities in order to maintain their bodies.

TEXT 48
yogasthaḥ kuru karmāṇi saṅgaṁ tyaktvā dhanañjaya
sidhhy-asiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā samatvaṁ yoga ucyate

Give up the desire for results and become situated in bhakti-yoga while engaging in activities according to your svadharma. Equipoised intelligence in both the accomplishment of attaining the results of one’s actions and the failure in achieving such results is known as yoga.

TEXT 49
dūreṇa hy avaraṁ karma buddhi-yogād dhanañjaya
buddhau śaraṇam anviccha kṛpaṇāḥ phala-hetavaḥ 

Through buddhi-yoga, in other words, through niṣkāma-karma-yoga (the state of giving up the desire to enjoy the results of one’s work) you should cultivate bhakti and kāmya-karma will be driven far away. Those who desire the results of their activities are misers. Therefore, take refuge in buddhi-yoga.

TEXT 50-51
buddhi-yukto jahātīha ubhe sukṛta duṣkṛte
tasmād yogāya yujyasva yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam

karma-jaṁ buddhi-yuktā hi phalaṁ tyaktvā manīṣiṇaḥ
janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ padaṁ gacchanty anāmayam

Actions performed according to buddhi-yoga are talented. Thus with intelligence, in your worldly experience, remain far away from sukṛti – in other words, away from piety and impiety. Scholars endowed with intelligence give up the results born from their actions and are freed from the bondage of material birth. Therefore, you will attain freedom from misery, which is the highest condition according to the devotees.

TEXT 52
yadā te moha-kalilaṁ buddhir vyatitariṣyati
tadā gantāsi nirvedaṁ śrotavyasya śrutasya ca

In this way, by practicing niṣkāma-karma and offering the results to the Supreme, when your mind completely abandons the forest of illusion, then you will become impartial towards all the śāstra that are to be heard and have been heard, and you will be inclined towards pure bhaktisādhana.

TEXT 53
śruti-vipratipannā te yadā sthāsyati niścalā
samādhāv acalā buddhis tadā yogam avāpsyasi

At that time, when your intelligence is no longer disturbed by the various explanations of the Vedas, then you will become fixed in natural samādhi and you will attain pure bhakti-yoga.

TEXT 54
arjuna uvāca
sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā samādhi-sthasya keśava
sthita-dhīḥ kiṁ prabhāṣeta kim āsīta vrajeta kim 

Hearing all this, Arjuna Mahāśaya said: O Keśava, what are the symptoms of those persons whose intelligence is fixed? And when such persons who are jīvanmuktas (liberated in this same body) with unwavering consciousness and fixed in samādhi, what do they say in dealing with honour and dishonour,  praise and insults, and affection and hatred? Also, how do they conduct themselves in relation to external objects? I wish to know all this.

TEXT 55
śrī bhagavān uvāca
prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha mano-gatān
ātmany evātmanā tuṣṭaḥ sthita-prajñas tadocyate

Bhagavān replied: O Pārtha, when the jīva renounces all desires that are produced from the mind, and becomes satisfied by perceiving the ānandasvarūpa (inherent bliss) of the ātmā, then he is said to be sthitaprajña (fixed in consciousness).

TEXT 56
duḥkheṣv anudvigna-manāḥ sukheṣu vigata-spṛhaḥ
vīta-rāga-bhaya-krodhaḥ sthita-dhīr munir ucyate 

Although physical, mental and social tribulations may be present, his mind is not disturbed, even when these things produce happiness. He has no desire and he is free from mundane attraction, fear and anger. He is sthitadhī or sthitaprajña.

TEXT 57
yaḥ sarvatrānabhisnehas tat tat prāpya śubhāśubham
nābhinandati na dveṣṭi tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā

He who is fixed in consciousness, he is without attraction for material things and harbours neither love or hatred in regards to attaining that which is auspicious or inauspicious. As long as the physical body exists, gain or loss in relation to matter is inevitable. However, that person who is sthitaprajña does not feel attachment or hatred in gain or loss because his consciousness remains firmly fixed in samādhi.

TEXT 58
yadā saṁharate cāyaṁ kūrmo’ṅgānīva sarvaśaḥ
indriyāṇīndriyārthebhyas tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā 

The senses want to roam freely after the external sense-objects, but all the senses of a man who is sthitaprajña are subjugated by his intelligence and the words of the śāstra. They cannot wander independently – they only act in accordance with the directions of the intelligence. Just as all the limbs of a tortoise are withdrawn voluntarily, so too, all the senses of one who is sthitaprajña are sometimes withdrawn and sometimes active in accordance with the dictates of the intelligence.

TEXT 59
viṣayā vinivartante nirāhārasya dehinaḥ
rasa-varjaṁ raso’pyasya paraṁ dṛṣṭvā nivartate 

The concept that detachment from sense-objects can be achieved by the embodied jīva through fasting is meant for extremely foolish people. Aṣṭāṅgayoga is the practice of detaching oneself from sense-objects through yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma and pratyāhāra and this type of process is meant for such people. However, this process does not apply to those persons who are sthitaprajña. Persons who are sthitaprajña are charmed by seeing the beauty of the Supreme and they abandon any attraction to petty material sense-objects. Although there is a process for extremely foolish persons to control the senses through fasting, there is no eternal auspiciousness for the jīva beyond the rāgamārga (the path of spontaneous bhakti). By developing attachment for a superior thing, one naturally rejects something which is inferior.

TEXT 60
yatato hy api kaunteya puruṣasya vipaścitaḥ
indriyāṇi pramāthīni haranti prasabhaṁ manaḥ 

This is because those who follow vidhimārga (the path of śāstrika rule sand regulations) and endeavour to rid the mind of material attachments, fall down from time to time because the agitated senses cast the mind back into the midst of sense-objects. There is no danger of such a fall down on the path of rāga.

TEXT 61
tāni sarvāṇi saṁyamya yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ
vaśe hi yasyendriyāṇi tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā 

Thus, in relation to yuktavairāgya (using all things in relation to the Absolute), those who are established on the path of yoga engage in the highest type of bhakti and control their senses. Therefore, they are firmly situated in consciousness.

TEXT 62
dhyāyato viṣayān puṁsaḥ saṅgas teṣūpajāyate
saṅgāt sañjāyate kāmaḥ kāmāt krodho’bhijāyate 

On the other hand, consider the anarthas on the path of vidhi when engaged in phalguvairāgya (false renunciation). At the time when one attempts to practice renunciation, when meditating upon sense-objects, then gradually a desire to associate with those sense-objects is born. From that association, desire arises, and from that desire, anger appears.

TEXT 63
krodhād bhavati sammohaḥ sammohāt-smṛti-vibhramaḥ
smṛti-bhraṁśād buddhi-nāśo buddhi-nāśāt praṇaśyati

From anger comes bewilderment, and from bewilderment loss of memory manifests. From loss of memory, one’s intelligence is destroyed, and when intelligence is destroyed then everything is lost. Such results occur in many ways while on the path of vidhi, engaged in phalguvairāgya. Therefore, this type of engagement is fraught with obstacles.

TEXT 64
rāga-dveṣa-vimuktais tu viṣayān indriyaiś caran
ātma-vaśyair vidheyātmā prasādam adhigacchati

Those who engage in yukta-vairāgya are sthitaprajña and they renounce attachment and hatred. Their senses are controlled by the ātmā, and even if they their senses are applied to the material sense-objects, such a person who is vidheyātma (one who is submissive to the Supreme), in other words, independent, attains a peaceful mind.

TEXT 65
prasāde sarva-duḥkhānāṁ hānir asyopajāyate
prasanna-cetaso hy āśu buddhiḥ paryavatiṣṭhate 

When one attains a peaceful mind, in other words, when bhakti is present, all miseries are removed. The intelligence of the devotees always remains steady and fixed upon their desired aspiration.

TEXT 66
nāsti buddhir ayuktasya na cāyuktasya bhāvanā
na cābhāvayataḥ śāntir aśāntasya kutaḥ sukham 

Just see – those who do not meditate upon the supreme rasa, how can they attain peace from an inferior rasa? How can someone bereft of any peace achieve the highest type of bliss? Therefore, it is not possible for those persons whose intelligence is restless to meditate upon Bhagavān and become aware of the supreme rasa.

TEXT 67
indriyāṇāṁ hi caratāṁ yan mano’nuvidhīyate
tad asya harati prajñāṁ vāyur nāvam ivāmbhasi 

Just as an unfavourable wind makes a boat go astray, so also when the mind of a restless person wanders towards the senses, it becomes obedient to them and he is robbed of his intelligence.

TEXT 68
tasmād yasya mahā-bāho nigṛhītāni sarvaśaḥ
indriyāṇīndriyārthebhyas tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā 

Therefore, O mighty-armed one, you should know that those whose senses are restrained from the sense-objects through the yoga of yuktavairāgya are said to have firm intelligence.

TEXT 69
yā niśā sarva-bhūtānāṁ tasyāṁ jāgarti saṁyamī
yasyāṁ jāgrati bhūtāni sā niśā paśyato muneḥ

O Arjuna, there are two types of intelligence – ātma-pravaṇā (that which is inclined towards the ātmā) and viṣayapravaṇā (that which is inclined toward matter). An intellect which is  ātma-pravaṇā is like nightime for all entities, namely those ordinary jīvas who are charmed by matter. Because they are asleep at night, all jīvas who are enamoured by matter cannot obtain the knowledge they require. However, one who is sthitaprajña remains awake at night and directly experiences the bliss of being fixed in ātmabuddhi (the transcendental intelligence of the self). Those jīvas who are charmed by matter, who possess viṣayapravaṇā, remain awake in order to directly experience misery and bewilderment by being firmly established amongst sense-objects. However, that is night time in relation to the muni who is a sthitaprajña. He perceives all those sense-objects, that give happiness and distress to worldly people, with indifference and only acknowledges them when they are necessary to be accepted.

TEXT 70
āpūryamāṇam acala-pratiṣṭhaṁ
samudram āpaḥ praviśanti yadvat
tadvat kāmā yaṁ praviśanti sarve
sa śāntim āpnoti na kāma-kāmī

A sense enjoyer can never achieve peace. Just as water from different places cannot disturb the ocean when entering it, similarly, even if all desires enter a muni who is sthitaprajña, agitation cannot manifest within him. Therefore he attains peace.

TEXT 71
vihāya kāmān yaḥ sarvān pumāṁś carati niḥspṛhaḥ
nirmamo nirahaṅkāraḥ sa śāntim adhigacchati 

One achieves peace when he renounces all desires, becomes indifferent towards all the objects of the senses, and roams around without false ego, devoid of any conception of possessiveness.

TEXT 72
eṣā brāhmī sthitiḥ pārtha naināṁ prāpya vimuhyati
sthitvāsyām anta-kāle’pi brahma-nirvāṇam ṛcchati 

This type of position is known as brāhmīsthita (situated in transcendence). O Pārtha, one who achieves this status is never bewildered. At the end of his life, if one attains such a position like the king Khaṭvaṅga, then such a person achieves brahmanirvāṇa. He attains the status of brahmaprāpikā (achieving Brahman). He is said to be brahma-sthiti (situated in Brahman). By achieving Brahman, one is liberated from matter, which is called brahmanirvāṇa. That reality which is the opposite of matter is called brahma. By being situated in this reality, one attains aprākṛtarasa (divine mellows).

iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṁ saṁhitāyāṁ
vaiyāsikyāṁ bhīṣma-parvāṇi
śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsūpaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṁ yoga-śāstre śrī kṛṣṇārjuna-saṁvāde
sāṅkhya-yogaḥ nāma dvitiyo’dhyāyaḥ

Thus ends Chapter Two entitled Sāṅkhya Yoga from the conversation between Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna in the Upaniṣad known as Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā, the yoga-śāstra of divine knowledge, from the Bhīṣma-parva of Mahābhārata, the literature revealed by Vyāsa in one hundred thousand verses.

Thus ends the translation and commentary of the second chapter.

Bhagavad-Gita-Rasika-ranjanaBhagavad-gita - Chapter One
Bhagavad-Gita-Rasika-ranjanaBhagavad-gita - Chapter Three

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