Bhajana Rahasya

Chapter 2 – Dvitīya-yāma-sādhana

 

Prāta-kālīya-bhajana – anartha-nivtti in sādhu-saga

(the first six daṇḍas of the morning: approximately 6.00 A.M. – 8.30 A.M.)

Text 1


There is no consideration of proper or improper time in regard to chanting the Lord’s holy names, which are fully endowed with all potencies. This is described in the second verse of Śikṣāṣṭaka:

nāmnām akāri bahudhā nija-sarva-śaktis
tatrārpitā niyamita smarae na kāla
etādṛśī tava kpā bhagavan mamāpi
durdaivam īdṛśam ihājani nānurāga

O Bhagavān, Your names bestow all auspiciousness upon the jīvas. Therefore, for their benefit, You are eternally manifest as Your innumerable names, such as Rāma, Nārāyaṇa, Kṛṣṇa, Mukunda, Mādhava, Govinda and Dāmodara. You have invested those names with all the potencies of Their respective forms. Out of Your causeless mercy, You have not even imposed any restrictions on the remembrance of these names, as is the case with certain prayers and mantras that must be chanted at specific times (sandhyā-vandana). In other words, the holy name of Bhagavān can be chanted and remembered at any time of the day or night. This is the arrangement You have made. O Prabhu, You have such causeless mercy upon the jīvas; nevertheless, due to my nāma-aparādha, I am so unfortunate that no attachment for Your holy name, which is so easily accessible and which bestows all good fortune, has awakened within me.

aneka lokera vāñchā aneka prakāra
kpāte karila aneka nāmera pracāra
khāite suite yathā tathā nāma laya
deśa-kāla-niyama nāhi sarva-siddhi haya
sarva-śakti nāme dila kariyā vibhāga
āmāra durdaiva nāme nāhi anurāga



Text 2

A prayer for attaining attachment for the holy name is given in the fifth verse of Nāmāṣṭaka:

aghadamana-yaśodā-nandanau nanda-sūno
kamala-nayana-gopī-candra-vndāvanendrāḥ
praata-karua-kṛṣṇāv ity aneka-svarūpe
tvayi mama ratir uccair vardhatāṁ nāmadheya

O Nāma Bhagavān, possessor of inconceivable glories, may my affection for You continue to increase, day and night. O Aghadamana! O Yaśodā-nandana! O Nanda-sūnu! O Kamalanayana! O Gopīcandra! O Vṛndāvanendra! O Praṇata-karuṇa! O Kṛṣṇa! You have innumerable forms; may my attachment to them always increase.


Text 3

Kṛṣṇa has invested all potencies in His name. The Skanda Purāṇa states:

dāna-vrata-tapas-tīrtha-yātrādīnaś ca yāḥ sthitāḥ
śaktayo deva-mahatāṁ sarva-pāpa-harāḥ śubhāḥ
rājasūyāśvamedhānāṁānasyādhyātma-vastuna
ākṛṣya hariṇā sarvāḥ sthāpitāḥ sveu nāmasu

Whatever potency to nullify sins or bestow auspiciousness found in charity, vows, austerities, pilgrimage, the rājasūya- and aśvamedha-yajñas, knowledge of transcendental objects, and so forth, has been invested by Śrī Kṛṣṇa in His holy names (that is, the primary names).

dharma-yajña-yoga-jñāne yata śakti chila
saba harināme kṛṣṇa svaya samarpila


Text 4

In the performance of nāma-bhajana, there is no consideration of cleanliness or uncleanliness, nor of proper or improper time. This is corroborated in the Vaiśvānara-saṁhitā:

na deśa-kāla-niyamo na śaucāśauca-niraya
para sakīrtanād eva rāma rāmeti mucyate

In chanting the holy name, there is no rule concerning place and time, nor is there one regarding cleanliness or uncleanliness. By repeating the name “Rāma”, or in other words by performing saṅkīrtana of the mahā-mantra, the topmost liberation – namely prema-bhakti – is obtained.

deśa kāla-śaucāśauca-vidhi nāme nāi
hare kṛṣṇa rāma nāme sadya tare yāi


Text 5

The characteristics of misfortune are described in Śrīmad- Bhāgavatam (3.9.7):

daivena te hata-dhiyo bhavata prasagāt
sarvāśubhopaśamanād vimukhendriyā ye
kurvanti kāma-sukha-leśa-lavāya dīnā
lobhābhibhūta-manaso ’kuśalāni śaśvat

Those persons who refrain from the hearing and chanting of Your glories, which destroys all misfortune, and instead always engage in inauspicious activities, being obsessed with a desire for a particle of material sense enjoyment, are certainly wretched, for fate has stolen away their intelligence.

tomāra prasaga sarva, aśubha karaye kharva,
durdaiva prabhāve mora mana
kāmasukha-leśa āśe, lobha akuśalāyāse,
se prasage nā kaila yatana


Text 6

In Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.7.4–6) it is stated:

bhakti-yogena manasi samyak praihite ’male
apaśyat purua pūramāyāṁ ca tad-apāśrayām
yayā sammohito jīva ātmāna tri-guṇātmakam
paro ’pi manute ’narthatat-kta cābhipadyate
anarthopaśama sākṣād bhakti-yogam adhokaje
lokasyājānato vidvāṁś cakre sātvata-sahitām

With a pure heart Śrī Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vedavyāsa became absorbed in meditation through the process of bhakti-yoga. He thus saw the Supreme Person, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, along with His external energy (māyā), which was far away from Him but under His control. Due to this māyā, the conditioned living entity (baddhajīva) forgets his service to Kṛṣṇa and becomes affected by anarthas. Although transcendental to the three modes of material nature, the living entity who is bewildered by māyā considers himself a material product. He thus identifies himself with this body and considers that which is related to it to be his. The infinitesimal living entity can only be delivered by kṛṣṇa-bhakti-yoga, but the mass of people in the material world are ignorant of this fact. Understanding this, Śrī Vyāsa manifested Bhāgavatam through bhakti-yoga.

kṛṣṇa, kṛṣṇa-māyā, jīva ei tina tattva
māyā-mohe māyā-baddha jīvera anartha
citkaa jīvera kṛṣṇa-bhakti-yoga-bale
anartha vinaṣṭa haya kṛṣṇa prema-phale
ei tattva nāma-samādhite pāile vyāsa
bhāgavate bhakti-yoga karila prakāśa


Text 7

Anarthas, or misfortune, are of four kinds. This is described in the Āmnāya-sūtra:

māyā-mugdhasya jīvasya jñeyo ’narthaś catur-vidha
hd-daurbalya cāparādho’sat-tṛṣṇā tattva-vibhrama

The anarthas of the living entities enchanted by māyā are of four kinds: (1) illusion about one’s real identity (svarūpabhrama), (2) hankering for that which is temporary (asat-tṛṣṇā), (3) offences (aparādha) and (4) weakness of heart (hṛdayadaurbalya). They bind the living entity to the material world and entangle him in its miseries.

māyā-mugdha jīvera anartha catuṣṭaya
asat-tṛṣṇā, hdaya-daurbalya viamaya
aparādha svarūpa-vibhrama ei cāri
yāhāte sasāra-bandha vipatti vistāri


Text 8

Svarūpa-bhrama is of four types, as stated in the Āmnāya-sūtra:

sva-tattve para-tattve ca
sādhya-sādhana-tattvayo
virodhi-viaye caiva
tattva-bhramaś catur-vidha

The conditioned living entity is subject to four kinds of bhrama, illusion: (1) jīva-svarūpa-bhrama, (2) paratattva-bhrama, (3) sādhya-sādhana-tattva-bhrama and (4) bhajana-virodhiviṣaya- bhrama.

tattva-bhrama catuṣṭaya baai viama
sv
īya-tattve bhrama āra kṛṣṇa-tattve bhrama
sādhya-sādhanete bhrama, virodhī viaye
cārividha tattva-bhrama baddha-jīva-caye



Text 9

Asat-tṛṣṇā is of four kinds, as described in the Āmnāya-sūtra:

aihikevaiaṇā pāratrikeu caiaṇāśubhā
bhūti-vāñchā mumukṣā ca hy asat-tṛṣṇāś catur-vidhāḥ

The four types of asat-tṛṣṇā are: (1) desire for objects of this material world, (2) desire for heavenly pleasures, like those of Svarga, (3) desire for mystic powers and (4) desire for liberation.

pāra-trika aihika eaṇā bhūti-kāma
mukti-kāma ei cāri asat-tṛṣṇā nāma


Text 10

Aparādha is of four kinds, as mentioned in the Āmnāya-sūtra:

kṛṣṇa-nāma-svarūpeu tadīya-cit-kaeu ca
jñeyā budha-gaair nityam aparādhāś catur-vidhāḥ

The four kinds of aparādha are: (1) offences to Kṛṣṇa’s name (nāma-aparādha); (2) offences to Kṛṣṇa’s deity form (sevaaparādha); (3) offences to that which belongs to Kṛṣṇa, or in other words to Girirāja-Govardhana, the Gaṅgā, the Yamunā, the dhāma or the lotus feet of the devotees; and (4) offences to other living entities, who are all infinitesimal particles of spirit belonging to Kṛṣṇa.

kṛṣṇa-nāme, svarūpe o bhakte, anya nare
bhrama haite aparādha catuṣṭaya smare


Text 11

Hṛdaya-daurbalya is of four kinds, as stated in the Āmnāya-sūtra:

tucchāsakti kuṭīnāṭī mātsarya sva-pratiṣṭhatā
hd-daurbalya budhai śaśvaj jñeya kila catur-vidham

Scholars consider hṛdaya-daurbalya to be of four types: (1) attachment to worthless objects; that is, objects unrelated to Kṛṣṇa; (2) hypocrisy and deceit (kuṭināṭī); (3) envy upon seeing the prosperity of others; and (4) desire for prestige and position (pratiṣṭhā).

kṛṣṇetara viaye āsakti, kuṭīnāṭī
para-droha, pratiṣṭhāśā ei ta’ cārii
hdaya-daurbalya bali’ śāstre nirdhārila
chaya ripu, chaya ūrmi ihāte janmila
yata dina e saba anartha nāhi chāḍe
t
ata dina bhakti-latā kabhu nāhi bāḍhe


Text 12

All anarthas are nullified by nāma-saṅkīrtana. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.1.14) states:

āpanna sasti ghorāṁ yan-nāma vivaśo gṛṇan
tata sadyo vimucyeta yad bibheti svaya bhayam

If a living entity who is caught in the whirlpool of material existence even once chants the name of Kṛṣṇa, he can be freed immediately. Even fear personified trembles upon hearing the name of Bhagavān.

e ghora sasāre pai’ kṛṣṇa-nāma laya
sadya mukta haya āra bhaya pāya bhaya


Text 13

Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.2.37) states:

bhaya dvitīyābhiniveśata syād
īśād apetasya viparyayo ’smti
tan-māyayāto budha ābhajet ta
bhaktyaikayeśa guru-devatātmā

The jīva who is averse to Bhagavān forgets his own constitutional nature because of his association with māyā. Due to this forgetfulness, he becomes absorbed in the conception that he is the material body and thus thinks “I am a demigod”, “I am a human being”. In this state of bodily identification, he fears old age, disease and so forth. Therefore those who know the truth should consider their own guru as īśvara, the Supreme. In other words they should see him as their master who is non-different from Bhagavān and who is very dear to Him. Through exclusive devotion they should perform one-pointed worship of that īśvara, their guru.

kṛṣṇa chāḍi’ jīva kaila anyābhiniveśa
tāi tāra viparyaya-smti āra kleśa
sad-guru āśraya kari’ kṛṣṇakpāāśe
ananya-bhajana kare yāya kṛṣṇa-pāśe


Text 14

The characteristics of bhakti-yoga are described in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (1.2.12 and 1.2.7):

tac chraddadhānā munayo āna-vairāgya-yuktayā
paśyanty ātmani cātmānabhaktyā śruta-ghītayā
vāsudeve bhagavati bhakti-yoga prayojita
janayaty āśu vairāgyaāna ca yad ahaitukam

A faithful person, after hearing Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, automatically acquires bhakti endowed with knowledge and renunciation. By such bhakti he realises Bhagavān’s svarūpa in his heart and he realises his relationship with Him. Thus he obtains service to the Lord.

When the relationship between the Lord and the living entity is established, bhakti-yoga for Bhagavān Vāsudeva appears.

śraddhā kari’ nāma bhaje sādhu-kpā pāñā
itare virāga nitya-svarūpa bujhiyā
ihākei bali bhakti-yoga anuttama
bhakti-yoge sarva-siddhi yadi dhare krama


Text 15

The fourth verse of the catuḥ-ślokī of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.9.36) states:

etāvad eva jijñāsyatattva-jijñāsunātmana
anvaya-vyatirekābhyāṁ yat syāt sarvatra sarvadā

One who is inquisitive about the truth of the self (ātma-tattva) inquires through direct (anvaya) and indirect (vyatireka) means of deliberation about that object, which is always eternal.

anartha-nāśera yatna dui ta’ prakāra
anvaya-mukhete vyatireka-mukhe āra
anvaya-mukhete vidhi bhajana-viaye
vyatireka-mukhete niedha nānāśraye


Text 16

The six urges unfavourable to bhakti and the anarthas related to them (i.e. hṛdaya-daurbalya, asat-tṛṣṇā and aparādha) are explained in the first verse of Upadeśāmṛta:

vāco vega manasa krodha-vega
jihvā-vegam udaropastha-vegam
etān vegān yo viaheta dhīra
sarvām apīmāṁ pthivīṁ sa śiyāt

A wise and self-composed person who can tolerate the impetus to speak, the agitation of the mind, the onset of anger, the vehemence of the tongue, the urge of the belly and the agitation of the genitals can instruct the whole world. In other words, everyone becomes a disciple of such a self-controlled person.

vākya-vega mano-vega krodha-jihvā-vega
udara upastha-vega bhajana udvega
bahu-yatne nitya saba karibe damana
nirjane karibe rādhā-kṛṣṇera bhajana


Text 17

The six impediments to bhakti are described in the second verse of Upadeśāmṛta:

atyāhāra prayāsaś ca prajalpo niyamāgraha
jana-sagaś ca laulya ca abhir bhaktir vinaśyati

The following six kinds of faults destroy bhakti: (1) eating too much or collecting more than necessary; (2) endeavouring for that which is opposed to bhakti; (3) engaging in useless mundane talk; (4) failing to adopt essential rules and regulations, or fanatically adhering to rules and regulations; (5) taking bad association; and (6) being greedy or restless in the mind to adopt worthless opinions.

atyāhāra prayāsa prajalpa jana-saga
niyama-āgraha laulye haya bhakti bhaga


Text 18

The six kinds of association that nourish bhakti are described in the fourth verse of Upadeśāmṛta:

dadāti pratighṇāti guhyam ākhyāti pcchati
bhukte bhojayate caiva a-vidha prīti-lakaam

Offering pure devotees items in accordance with their requirements and accepting prasāda, remnant items given by pure devotees; revealing to devotees one’s confidential realisations concerning bhajana and inquiring from them about their confidential realisations; eating with great love the prasāda given by devotees and lovingly feeding them prasāda – these are the six kinds of association that symptomise love and affection.

ādāna pradāna prīte, gūḍha ālāpana
āhāra bhojana chaya sagera lakaa
sādhura sahita sage bhakti-vddhi haya
abhakta asat-sage bhakti haya kaya


Text 19

In Śrī Caitanya-candrodaya-nāṭaka (8.88) Śrīman Mahāprabhu has prohibited one from even seeing a sense enjoyer or a woman:

nikiñcanasya bhagavad-bhajanonmukhasya
pāra para jigamior bhava-sāgarasya
sandarśana viayiṇām atha yoitāṁ ca
hā hanta hanta via-bhakaato ’py asādhu

[Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu greatly lamented, saying:] Alas, for a renunciant who is devoted to bhagavad-bhajana and who desires to cross the ocean of material existence, it is worse to see sense enjoyers and women than it is to drink poison.

nikiñcana bhajana unmukha yei jana
bhava-sindhu uttīra haite yāṅra mana
viayī-milana āra yoit sammilane
via-pānāpekṣā tāṅra viruddha-ghaana


Text 20

It is forbidden to judge a transcendental Vaiṣṇava from a material viewpoint. Upadeśāmṛta (6) states:

dṛṣṭai svabhāva-janitair vapuaś ca doair
na prāktatvam iha bhakta-janasya paśyet
gagāmbhasāṁ na khalu budbuda-phena-pakair
brahma-dravatvam apagacchati nīra-dharmai

Devotees who are in this material world should not be considered material; that is, one should not consider them ordinary jīvas. Imperfections seen in their natures, such as birth in a low caste, harshness or lethargy, and imperfections seen in their bodies, such as ugly features, disease or deformities, are precisely like the appearance of bubbles, foam and mud in the Gaṅgā. Despite such apparent pollution of her water, the Gaṅgā retains her nature as liquefied transcendence. Similarly, one should not attribute material defects to self-realised Vaiṣṇavas.

svabhāva-janita āra vapu-doe kae
anādara nāhi kara śuddha-bhakta-jane
pakādi julīya doe kabhu gagā-jale
cinmayatva lopa nahe, sarva-śāstre bale
aprākta bhakta-jana pāpa nāhi kare
avaśiṣṭa pāpa yāya kichu dina pare


Text 21

Śrīla Raghunātha dāsa Gosvāmī states in Manaḥ-śikṣā (7) that one should give up the desire for prestige and the wickedness of deceit and hypocrisy:

pratiṣṭhāśā dhṛṣṭā śvapaca-ramaṇī me hdi naet
katha sādhu-premā spṛśati śucir etan nanu mana
sadā tva sevasva prabhu-dayita-sāmantam atula
yathā tāṁ nikāśya tvaritam iha ta veśayati sa

[Why does deceit not go away even after one has given up all material sense enjoyment? This verse has been composed in order to remove this doubt.] O mind, tell me, how can pure divine love appear in my heart (you, O mind, are my heart) as long as the shameless outcaste woman of the desire for prestige is audaciously dancing there? Therefore without delay remember and serve the immeasurably powerful commanders of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s army, the very dear devotees of Bhagavān. They will quickly chase away this outcaste woman and initiate the flow of pure vraja-prema in my heart.


Text 22

Manaḥ-śikṣa (6) states:

are ceta prodyat-kapaa-kuināṭī-bhara-kharakaran
mūtre snātvā dahasi katham ātmānam api mām
sadā tva gāndharvā-giridhara-pada-prema-vilasat
sudhāmbhodhau snātvā svam api nitarāṁ māṁ ca sukhaya

[In spite of having subdued the enemies of lust and anger, one may not have conquered the great enemy of deceit. This verse instructs how to gain victory over this powerful enemy.] O wicked mind, although you have adopted the path of sādhana, still you imagine yourself purified by bathing in the trickling donkey urine of an obvious abundance of deceit and hypocrisy. By doing so you are burning yourself and at the same time scorching me, a tiny jīva. Stop this! Eternally delight yourself and me by bathing in the nectarean ocean of prema for the lotus feet of Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa Yugala.

pratiṣṭhāśā kuṭīnāṭī yatne kara dūra
tāhā haile nāme rati pāibe pracura


Text 23

The ten kinds of offence to the holy name, which should be given up without fail, are described in the Padma Purāṇa:

(1–2) satāṁ nindā nāmnaḥ paramam aparādhaṁ vitanute
yata khyāti yāta katham u sahate tad vigarhām
śivasya śrī-viṣṇor ya iha gua-nāmādi-sakala
dhiyā bhinna paśyet sa khalu hari-nāmāhita-kara

(3–7) guror avajñā śruti-śāstra-nindanaṁ
tathārtha-vādo hari-nāmni kalpanam
nāmno balād yasya hi pāpa-buddhir
na vidyate tasya yamair hi śuddhi

(8–9) dharma-vrata-tyāga-hutādi-sarvaśubha-kriyā-sāmyam api pramāda
aśraddadhāne vimukhe ’py aśṛṇvati yaś copadeśa śiva-nāmāparādha

(10) śrute ’pi nāma-māhātmye ya prīti-rahito nara
aha-mamādi-paramo nāmni so ’py aparādha-kt

(1) To criticise the devotees of Bhagavān is a grievous offence to the holy name. How can Śrī Nāma Prabhu tolerate criticism of those great souls who are deeply devoted to Him and who spread His glories throughout the world? Therefore the first offence is criticism of sādhus and devotees.

(2) In this world a person who by mundane intelligence distinguishes between the all-auspicious, transcendental holy name, form, qualities and pastimes of Śrī Viṣṇu and the possessor of the holy name (nāmi-viṣṇu), considering them to be independent of or different from Him as is the case with material objects, commits an offence against the holy name. Furthermore, one who thinks that Lord Śiva and other demigods are independent of Viṣṇu, or similar to Viṣṇu, certainly commits nāma-aparādha.

(3) Guror avajñā – To disregard the guru who is established in all the truths regarding the holy name, considering him to be an ordinary man possessing a perishable body composed of material elements.

(4) Śruti-śāstra-nindanam – To find fault with the Vedas, the eternal Purāṇas and other scriptures. All the Vedas and Upaniṣads illuminate the glories of the holy name. To find fault with the mantras in which the holy name is glorified is nāmaaparādha. Due to misfortune, some persons neglect the śrutimantras in which the glories of nāma are indicated and give more honour to other instructions of the Śrutis. This is also nāma-aparādha.

(5) Tathārtha-vādaḥ – To consider the glories of harināma to be exaggerated. The scriptures state that all of Bhagavān’s potencies are contained within His name, and that the holy name is completely transcendental and therefore capable of destroying one’s bondage to the material world. All these glories of the holy name are the supreme truth. One should never associate with those who have no faith in them and who say that śāstra exaggerates the glories of the holy name. If such an unfaithful person appears before one’s eyes, one should take bath still wearing the clothes he has on. This is the teaching of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

(6) Hari-nāmni kalpanam – To consider Bhagavān’s name to be imaginary. Māyāvādīs and materialistic karmavādīs consider Brahman, which is without name and form, to be the supreme truth, and they say that the ṛṣis manufactured names like Rāma and Kṛṣṇa thinking such names would perfect their activities. These people are nāma-aparādhīs. The name of Hari is not imaginary; it is eternal and transcendental. It only manifests upon the transcendental senses, and only through bhakti. This is the teaching given by the bona fide guru and śāstra. Therefore one should acknowledge that the glories of harināma are the supreme truth. One who considers these glories to be imaginary will never be able to receive the mercy of the holy name.

(7) One who has a tendency to commit sinful and material activities on the strength of the holy name cannot be purified even if he performs superficial yoga processes such as yama, niyama, dhyāna or dhāraṇā. This is certain.

(8) To consider religiosity, vows, renunciation, fire sacrifices and other ordinary pious activities to be equal with or comparable to the transcendental name of Bhagavān is a sign of inattentiveness and carelessness, and is thus an offence.

(9) To instruct the glories of the holy name to faithless persons who are averse to hearing and chanting is also nāma-aparādha.

(10) Those who, in spite of hearing the astonishing glories of the holy name, maintain the conception that “I am this material body” and that “wordly objects of sense gratification are mine”, and who show no persistence in or love for the utterance of śrī nāma, are also nāma-aparādhīs.

sādhu-anādara āra anye īśa-jñāna
guruke avajñā, nāma-śāstre apamāna
nāme arthavāda, nāma-bale pāpāndhatā
anya śubha-karma saha nāmera samatā
śraddhā-hīne nāma dāna, jaḍāsakti-krame
māhātmya jāniyā nāme śraddhā nahe bhrame
ei daśa aparādha yatne parihari’
harināme kara bhāi bhajana cāturī


Text 24

False renunciation (phalgu-vairāgya) is prohibited. Bhaktirasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.126) states:

prāpañcikatayā buddhyā hari-sambandhi-vastuna
mumukubhi parityāgo vairāgya phalgu kathyate

When sādhakas who desire liberation renounce that which is related to Hari, such as the scriptures, the deity, the holy name, mahā-prasāda, the spiritual master and Vaiṣṇavas, considering them material, their renunciation is called futile renunciation, phalgu-vairāgya. This is unfavourable to bhakti.

prāpañcika jñāne bhakti sambandha viaya
mumuku-janera tyāga phalgu nāma haya


Text 25

One who is qualified to chant the holy name gives up all fruitive activities. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.5.41) says:

devari-bhūtāpta-nṛṇāṁ pitèṇāṁ
na kikaro nāyam ṛṇī ca rājan
sarvātmanā ya śaraa śaraya
gato mukunda parihtya kartam

One who has taken complete shelter of Bhagavān Mukunda, who is affectionate towards the surrendered, is not indebted to the demigods, to his forefathers, to ordinary living entities, or to relatives and guests. He is not subordinate to anyone other than Mukunda, nor is he their servant.

ekānta haiyā nāme ye laya śaraa
devādira ṛṇā tāra nahe kadācana


Text 26

The Padma Purāṇa (quoted in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.8)) states that one should give up niyamāgraha and follow the essence of all injunctions:

smartavya satata viṣṇur vismartavyo na jātucit
sarve vidhi-niedhāḥ syur etayor eva kikarāḥ

One should always remember Viṣṇu and never forget Him. All other rules and prohibitions are subservient to these two principles.

yāhe kṛṣṇa-smti haya, tāi vidhi jāni
kṛṣṇa-vismāraka kārya niedha bali’ māni


Text 27

Do not endeavour to perform activities such as atoning for sins through karma and jñāna. The Padma Purāṇa says:

harer apy aparādhān yakuryād dvi-pada-pāṁśala
nāmāśraya kadācit syāt taraty eva sa nāmata
nāmno ’pi sarva-suhdo hy aparādhāt pataty adha
nāmāparādha-yuktānāṁ nāmāny eva haranty-agham
aviśrānta-prayuktāni tāny evārtha-karāṇi ca

That wretched person who commits seva-aparādha at the lotus feet of Śrī Hari can become freed from his offence if he takes shelter of the holy name. Every kind of aparādha is nullified by service to the holy name. All perfection is attained by chanting the holy name without anarthas and with a sense of one’s relationship with the Lord, continuously and uninterruptedly, like an unbroken stream of oil.

kṛṣṇera śrī-mūrti prati aparādha kari’
nāmāśraye sei aparādhe yaya tari’
nāma aparādha yata nāme haya kaya
aviśrānta nāma laile sarva-siddhi haya


Text 28

Everyone should endeavour to attain knowledge of Kṛṣṇa (kṛṣṇa-svarūpa) and oneself (ātma-svarūpa). One first attains knowledge of Kṛṣṇa’s form and qualities, and then of His pastimes. Catuḥ-ślokī Bhāgavata (2.9.33) states:

aham evāsam evāgre nānyad yat sad-asat param
paścād aha yad etac ca yo ’vaśiyeta so ’smy aham

[Bhagavān said to Brahmā:] Before the creation of this world, only I existed. The gross and the subtle, up to the indefinable Brahman – in other words the cause (sat) and the effect (asat) – did not exist. Nothing other than I existed. What is manifested in the form of creation is also I, after creation it is also I, and after annihilation only I will remain.

cid-ghana-svarūpa kṛṣṇa nitya sanātana
kṛṣṇa-śakti pariati anya saghaana
sakalera avaśee kṛṣṇa cid-bhāskara
avicintya-bhedābheda tattva kṛṣṇetara


Text 29

Knowledge of the intrinsic natures of jīva-śakti and māyā-śakti is found in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (2.9.34):

te ’rtha yat pratīyeta na pratīyeta cātmani
tad vidyād ātmano māyāṁ yathābhāso yathā tama

The Supreme Absolute Truth (parama-tattva, or svarūpa-tattva) is the only real truth. One should understand that which is seen to be separate from this truth, or not existing within it, to be the product of the Supreme Absolute Truth’s illusory energy (māyā). The following example demonstrates this. Parama-tattva can be compared to the sun, which is an object consisting of light. The sun is experienced in two other forms, namely its reflection and darkness. Similarly, in regards to the Absolute Truth, reflection pertains to the living entities (jīva-śakti) and darkness to the material world (māyā-śakti).

kṛṣṇa-śakti māyā, kṛṣṇa haite bhedābheda
cic-chakti svarūpāśritā cij-jyoti-sambheda
jaḍākāre māyāśakti chāyā tamo-dharma
prapañca pratīti yāhe vinaśvara-karma


Text 30

The relationship between Kṛṣṇa on one side, and the living entity and the material world on the other, is one of inconceivable difference and non-difference, acintya-bhedābheda. Nevertheless, Kṛṣṇa is separately situated in His eternal svarūpa. Śrīmad- Bhāgavatam (2.9.35) states:

yathā mahānti bhūtāni bhūteṣūccāvacev anu
praviṣṭāny apraviṣṭāni tathā teu na tev aham

The five great elements of material creation enter into the bodies of all living entities, high and low, from the demigods to the sub-human species. But at the same time, these elements exist independently. Similarly, I have entered into all living entities as the Supersoul, but at the same time I am situated independently in My own svarūpa, and I appear to My surrendered devotees both internally and externally.

mahābhūta uccāvaca-bhūte avasthita
haiyā o pūra-rūpe mahābhūte sthita
sei rūpa cid-aṁśa jīve kṛṣṇāṁśa vyāpita
haiyā o pūra kṛṣṇa svarūpāvasthita


Text 31

Knowledge of the intrinsic nature of the holy name is given in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.233, quoted from the Padma Purāṇa):

nāma cintāmai kṛṣṇaś caitanya-rasa-vigraha
pūra śuddho nitya-mukto’bhinnatvān nāma-nāmino

The holy name is a transcendental wish-fulfilling gem (cintāmaṇi), for there is no difference between Kṛṣṇa’s name (nāma) and Kṛṣṇa Himself (nāmī). In other words the holy name is the bestower of the supreme goal (parama-puruṣārtha). This name is the very form of transcendental mellows (caitanyarasa- svarūpa). It is completely pure; that is, it is unlimited and eternally liberated, devoid of any connection with māyā.

harināma cintāmai cid-rasa-svarūpa
pūra jaḍātīta nitya kṛṣṇa-nija-rūpa


Text 32

Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu (1.2.234) states:

ata śrī-kṛṣṇa-nāmādi na bhaved grāhyam indriyai
sevonmukhe hi jihvādau svayam eva sphuraty ada

The material senses, such as the tongue, cannot perceive Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s name, which appears automatically only on the transcendental senses of one in whose heart the desire to serve Kṛṣṇa has arisen.

nāma, rūpa, gua, līlā indriya-grāhya naya
sevā-mukhe kpā kari’ indriya udaya


Text 33

Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.21.2) states:

sve sve ’dhikāre yā niṣṭhā sa gua parikīrtita
viparyayas tu doa syād ubhayor ea niraya

To have unyielding steadiness on the path of dharma, according to one’s own qualification, is a virtue; conversely, to make endeavours that do not accord with one’s qualification is a fault.

adhikāra susammata kārye haya gua
viparīta kārye doa bujhibe nipua


Text 34

Qualification for chanting the holy name is given in Śrīmad- Bhāgavatam (11.20.27–8):

jāta-śraddho mat-kathāsu nirviṇṇa sarva-karmau
veda dukhātmakān kāmān parityāge ’py anīśvara
tato bhajeta māṁ prītaśraddhālur dṛḍha-niścaya
juamāṇaś ca tān kāmāndukhodarkāṁś ca garhayan

If a person whose faith in hearing narrations of Me has been awakened is unable to give up sense enjoyment and the desire for it, even though he knows it gives misery, he should with a sincere heart condemn his inability to give it up. All the while, he should continue worshipping Me with firm faith, conviction and love.

kṛṣṇa-kathā śraddhā-lābha tyaje karmāsakti
dukhātmaka kāma-tyāge tabu nahe śakti
kāma-sevā kare tāhā kariyā garhaa
sudṛḍha-bhajane kāme kare vidhvasana
puyamaya kāma-mātra uddiṣṭa ethāya
pāpa-kāme śraddhadhānera ādara nā haya


Text 35

The six vows favourable for bhakti are described in the third verse of Upadeśāmṛta:

utsāhān niścayād dhairyāt
tat-tat-karma-pravartanāt
saga-tyāgāt sato vtte
abhir bhakti prasidhyati

Perfection in bhakti can be achieved by the following six kinds of practices: (1) to be enthusiastic in following the rules which nourish devotion; (2) to have firm faith in the statements of the scriptures and in śrī gurudeva, whose words are fully in line with the scriptures; (3) to be patient in the practice of bhakti, even in the midst of obstacles or when there is a delay in attaining one’s desired success; (4) to follow the limbs of bhakti, such as śravaṇa and kīrtana, and to give up one’s material sense enjoyment for the pleasure of Kṛṣṇa; (5) to give up association that is opposed to bhakti, like illicit connection with women, the association of those who are overly attached to women and the association of māyāvādīs, atheists and pseudo-religionists; and (6) to adopt the good behaviour and character of devotees. utsāha, dṛḍhatā, dhairya bhakti kārye rati saṅga-tyāga, sādhu-vṛtti chaye kara mati


Text 36

The gradual development of bhakti through the association of genuine sādhus is described in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (3.25.25):

satāṁ prasagān mama vīrya-savido
bhavanti ht-kara-rasāyanāḥ kathāḥ
taj-joaṇād āśv apavarga-vartmani
śraddhā ratir bhaktir anukramiyati

In the association of pure devotees, there are powerful discussions that illuminate My heroic deeds and that are pleasing to both the ears and the heart. By hearing these narrations, one quickly proceeds along the path of the removal of ignorance (avidyā-nivṛtti), which is the sequential development of śraddhā, rati and prema-bhakti.

sādhu-sage haya kṛṣṇa-kathā rasāyana
tāhe śraddhā rati bhakti krame uddīpana


Text 37

A madhyama-bhakta renders service to the three kinds of Vaiṣṇavas. Upadeśāmṛta (5) states:

kṛṣṇeti yasya giri ta manasādriyeta
dīkṣāsti cet praatibhiś ca bhajantam īśam
śuśrūṣayā bhajana-vijñam ananyam anyanindādi-
śūnya-hdam īpsita-saga-labdhyā

That person who utters Kṛṣṇa’s name by just once calling out “O Kṛṣṇa!” is a kaniṣṭha-adhikārī, and one should offer him respect within one’s mind. That person who fully understands the principle of dīkṣā, has accepted dīkṣā from a qualified guru and performs bhajana of Bhagavān in accordance with Vaiṣṇava conventions, is a madhyama-adhikārī. One should respect such a devotee, who is endowed with the correct understanding of reality and illusion, by offering obeisances unto him and so forth. That person who properly understands the science of bhajana, as described in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and other Vaiṣṇava scriptures, and performs exclusive bhajana of Śrī Kṛṣṇa is a mahābhāgavata. Due to his undeviating absorption in Kṛṣṇa, the pure heart of such a devotee is free from faults, such as the tendency to criticise others. He is expert in bhajana, which means he is skilled in the method of remembering Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa’s eternal eightfold daily pastimes through mānasī-sevā, service performed within the mind. Knowing him to be a mahā-bhāgavata whose heart is established in the particular mood of service to Śrī Rādhā- Kṛṣṇa for which one aspires (svajātīya) and who is affectionately disposed towards oneself (susnigdha), one should seek his association, considering it to be topmost. One should honour him by offering prostrated obeisances, making relevant inquiry and rendering service unto him with great love.

akaitave kṛṣṇa-nāma yāra mukhe śuna
manete ādara tāre kara puna puna
bhakti sampradāya labhi’ yei kṛṣṇa bhaje
ādara karaha pai’ tāra pada-raje
svīya para-buddhi-śūnya ananya-bhajana
yāṅhāra, tāṅhāra sevā kara anukaa


Text 38

One should chant the holy name while maintaining one’s life by yukta-vairāgya, the mood of appropriate renunciation. Bhaktirasāmṛta- sindhu (1.2.125) states:

anāsaktasya viayān yathārham upayuñjata
nirbandha kṛṣṇa-sambandhe yukta vairāgyam ucyate

Appropriate renunciation is to accept objects favourable to one’s service while being detached from that which is unrelated to Kṛṣṇa and attached to that which is related to Kṛṣṇa.

yathāyogya viaya bhoga anāsakta hañā
suyukta-vairāgya bhakti-sambandha kariyā


Text 39

Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (7.11.32) further states:

vttyā sva-bhāva-ktayā vartamāna sva-karma-kt
hitvā sva-bhāva-ja karma śanair nirguatām iyāt

One who maintains his occupational duty (svadharma) by taking shelter of his innate propensity will gradually become detached from these activities and become situated beyond the material modes.

svabhāva-vihita-vtti kariyā āśraya
nipāpa jīvane kara kṛṣṇa-nāmāśraya


Text 40

Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam (11.7.39) also says:

prāṇa-vttyaiva santuyen munir naivendriya-priyai
āna yathā na naśyeta nāvakīryeta vāṅ-mana

I have taken a lesson from the way in which the vital force within the body operates, that one should eat and drink only as much as is required to sustain the body. A sādhaka should also eat only what is needed to maintain his life. A sādhaka should not enjoy sense objects merely for his own gratification; otherwise his intelligence will become corrupted, his mind restless and his speech engaged in topics unrelated to Kṛṣṇa.

aprajalpe kara prāṇa-vtti agīkāra
indriyera priya-vtti nā kara svīkāra
vāg-indriya mano-jñāna yāhe svāsthya pāya
ei rūpa āhāre yukta-vairāgya nā yāya


Text 41

Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya (8.51) explains that one should be careful about whom he associates with:

yasya yat-sagati puso maivat syāt sa tad-gua
sva-kularddhyai tato dhīmān sva-yuthāny eva saṁśrayet

A person develops the qualities of the company he keeps, just as a crystal reflects the colour of those objects which are brought into its proximity. Therefore, by associating with pure devotees, one can himself become pure.

svayūthera magala o anye rākhi’ dūra
yathā saga yathā phala pāibe pracura


Text 42

With great effort one should follow the path delineated by the mahājanas. This is described in the Skanda Purāṇa:

sa mgya śreyasāṁ hetupantha santāpa-varjita
anavāpta-śrama pūrve yena santa pratasthire

Only by following the path upon which previous great personalities (mahājanas) have easily traversed can we find ultimate auspiciousness and freedom from all suffering.


Text 43

Acquiring knowledge by hearing from scriptural authorities is the real path of bhakti. The Brahma-yāmala states:

śruti-smti-purāṇādi pañcarātra-vidhi vinā
aikāntikī harer bhaktir utpātāyaiva kalpate

One can only attain the one-pointedness, or aikāntika-bhāva, of pure bhakti by adopting the path of the previous mahājanas. It cannot be attained by leaving the path of the mahājanas and creating another path. Because Dattātreya, Buddha and later preachers were unable to understand pure bhakti, they accepted only a semblance of this transcendental sentiment. Dattātreya mixed it with māyāvāda and Buddha with atheism, and thus they set forth useless paths, describing them as one-pointed devotion (aikāntikī-hari-bhakti). In reality, however, the paths promoted by these people are not hari-bhakti; they are simply a disturbance.

pūrva-mahājana pathe cale anāyāse
nava-pathe utpāta āsiyā jīve nāśe
anartha-nāśera yatna kabhu nāhi yāra
nāma-kpā nāhi pāya durdaiva tāhāra
nāma-kpā vinā koi koi yatna kare
tāhāte anartha kabhu nāhi chāḍe tāre
nikapae yatne kāṅde nāmera carae
dūra haya anartha tāhāra alpa dine
anartha chāḍiyā kara śravaa-kīrtana
ekānta-bhāvete lao nāmera śaraa


Text 44

Endeavours made in performing resolute bhajana are described in Hari-bhakti-vilāsa:

evam ekāntināṁ prāyakīrtana smaraa prabho
kurvatāṁ parama-prītyā ktyamanyan na rocyate
bhāvena kenacit preṣṭhaśrīmūrter aghri-sevane
syād icchaiṣāṁ sva-mantrea sva-rasenaiva tad-vidhi
vihitev eva nityeu pravartante svaya hite
sarva-tyāge ’py aheyāyāḥ sarvānartha-bhuvaś ca te
kuryu pratiṣṭhā-viṣṭhāyāḥ yatnam asparśane varam
prabhāte cārdharāte ca madhyāhne divasa-kaye
kīrtayanti hari ye vai na teṣām anya-sādhanam

If a one-pointed devotee (aikāntika-bhakta) chants and contemplates the glories of his Prabhu, Śrī Viṣṇu, with great affection and according to his transcendental sentiments, he will have no taste for any other activity. With whatever mood he desires to serve the lotus feet of his beloved deity, he performs arcana through his particular mantra and his particular mellow of devotion. That same service later transforms into his eternal service. Even if one has given up everything else, something still remains to be given up before this can happen – this is the desire for name and fame, pratiṣṭhā, the root cause of all anarthas. The prime duty is to give up this pratiṣṭhā, which is compared to stool. What to speak of touching this pratiṣṭhā, do not see it, even from a distance! For one who chants the name of Śrī Hari in the morning, noon, evening and midnight, no other sādhana is needed.

ekānta bhaktera mātra kīrtana-smaraa
anya parve ruci nāhi haya pravartana
bhāvera sahita haya śrī-kṛṣṇa-sevana
svārasikī-bhāva krame haya uddīpana
ekānta bhaktera kriyā-mudrā-rāgodita
tathāpi se saba nahe vidhi-viparīta
sarva-tyāga karileo chāḍā sukahina
pratiṣṭhāśā tyāge yatna pāibe pravīṇa
prabhāte gabhīra rātre madhyāhne sandhyāya
anartha chāḍiyā lao nāmera āśraya
ei-rūpe kīrtana smaraa yei kare
kṛṣṇa-kpā haya śīghra, anāyāse tare
śraddhā kari sādhu-sage kṛṣṇa nāma laya
anartha sakala yāya niṣṭhā upajaya
prāta-kāle nitya-līlā karibe cintana
cintite cintite bhāvera haibe sādhana


Text 45

Govinda-līlāmṛta (2.1) describes the early morning pastimes (prātaḥ-līlā) as follows:

rādhāṁ snāta-vibhūṣitāṁ vrajapayāhūtāṁ sakhībhi prage
tad-gehe vihitānna-pāka-racanāṁ kṛṣṇāvaśeṣāśanām
kṛṣṇa buddham avāpta-dhenu-sadana nirvyūḍha-go-dohana
susnāta kta-bhojana saha-carais tāś cātha tāś cāśraye

After the kuñja-bhaṅga-līlā, or niśānta-līlā (pastimes at night’s end), Śrī Rādhā-Śyāmasundara return to Their respective abodes and lay down on Their beds. The condition of Śrī Kiśorī in Jāvaṭa is indescribable as She burns in separation from Her beloved. Śrī Rūpa and Rati Mañjarīs are absorbed in their service to Her, and give Her encouragement as if again infusing Her with life. Sometimes Jaṭilā, sometimes Mukharā and sometimes Paurṇamāsī enter Śrī Kiśorī’s quarters, and at this time Śyāmalā also comes. Kiśorī and Śyāmalā are immersed in a joking conversation. In this way the pastime develops in newer and newer ways. Rūpa, Rati and other mañjarīs ornament Śrīmatī by cleansing Her body, decorating Her and so forth, and at the same time they remind Her of Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes.

rādhā snāta vibhūṣita, śrī-yaśodā-samāhuta,
sakhī-sage tad ghe gamana
tathā pāka-viracana, śrī-kṛṣṇāvaśeṣāśana,
madhye-madhye duhāra milana
kṛṣṇa nidrā parihari, goṣṭhe go-dohana kari,
snānāśana sahacara sage
ei līlā cintā kara, nāma-preme garagara,
prāte bhakta-jana-sage rage
ei līlā cinta āra kara sakīrtana
acire pāibe tumi bhāva-uddīpana

Thus ends the Dvitīya-yāma-sādhana, Prātaḥ-kālīya-bhajana, of Śrī-Bhajana-rahasya.