Daśa-mūla Niryāsa (The Essence of the Ten Foundational Principles)

Vedanta-DarsanaVedānta Darśana (The Vedānta Philosophy)
Who-is-a-Mayavadi-Māyāvādī Kāhāke Bali? (Who is a Māyāvādī?)

In ‘Daśa-mūla Niryāsa (The Essence of the Ten Foundational Principles), published in Sajjana Toṣaṇi, Vol.8, Issue 9 in 1897, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Thākura outlines in detail the famous ten foundational principles found in the teachings of Śri Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

Daśa-mūla Niryāsa
(The Essence of the Ten Foundational Principles)

 

by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura
(translated by Swami B.V. Giri)

āmnāyaḥ prāha tattvaṁ harim iha paramaṁ sarva-śāktiṁ rasābdhiṁ
tad-bhinnāṁsāṁś ca jīvān prakṛti-kavalitāṁs tad-vimuktāṁs ca bhāvāt
bhedābheda-prakāśaṁ sakalam api hareḥ sādhanaṁ śuddha-bhaktiṁ
sādhyaṁ tat-prītiṁ evety upadiśati harir gauracandro bhaje tam

I worship that Śrī Gauracandra, who has given this classification of teachings. These teachings are that āmnāya, in other words the Vedas, are the only pramāṇa (evidence). The Veda teaches nine subjects, or prameya (truths which are to be established).


FIRST SUBJECT
Śrī Hari is the only parama-tattva (Supreme Truth). Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who has the complexion of a new rain-cloud, and whose form is saccidānanda (eternity, knowledge and bliss), is denoted by the word ‘Hari.’ Brahman, who is described in the Upaniṣads, is merely the effulgence of Śrī Hari’s divine form. He is not a separate tattva from Śrī Kṛṣṇa. That which the yogīs refer to as Paramātmā, is an expansion of Śrī Hari, and it is simply by His īkṣaṇa, or glance, that prakṛti creates the world of animate and inanimate beings. Therefore, Śrī Hari is the only Master, and all others such as Brahmā etc. are His servants.


SECOND SUBJECT
That Śrī Hari possesses all potencies. Manifesting from Hari is His acintya-parā-śakti (supreme potency of inconceivability) which is non-different from Him. He has His internal cit-śakti, His external māyā-śakti and His marginal jīva-śakti. The vaikuṇṭha-tattva emanates from the cit-śakti, the unlimited universes emanate from the māyā-śakti, and the infinite jīvas are created by the jīva-śakti. Sandhinī, samvit and hlādinī are the three aspects of the parā-śakti.


THIRD SUBJECT
As Hari, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the ocean of all rasas. Śānta (neutrality), dāsya (servitorship), sakhya (friendship), vātsalya (parental affection) and madhura (conjugal love)these are the five rasas. Of all the rasas, madhura-rasa is the most superior. In Kṛṣṇa’s vraja-līlā, madhura-rasa eternally remains with its viśuddha-bhāva (divine emotions). Śrī Kṛṣṇa is resplendent with sixty-four qualities, namely:

(1) Suramyāṅga (beautiful bodily features)
(2) Sarva-sallakṣaṇa-yukta (He has all auspicious characteristics)
(3) Sundara (Beautiful)
(4) Mahā-tejā (extremely radiant)
(5) Balavān (Stong)
(6) Kiśora-vayasa-yukta (ever-youthful)
(7) Vividha-adbhūta-bhāṣājña (amazing at speaking various languages)
(8) Satyavāk (truthful)
(9) Priya-vākya-yukta (He speaks pleasantly)
(10) k-patu (eloquent)
(11)
Supaṇḍita (very knowledgeable)
(12)
Buddhimān (intelligent)
(13)
Pratijñā-yukta (ingenious)
(14)
Vidagdha (Skilful)
(15)
Catura (clever)
(16)
Dakṣa (expert)
(17)
Kṛtajña (grateful)
(18)
Su-dṛdha-vrata (Extremely fixed in His determination)
(19)
Deśa-kāla-pātrajña (an expert in place, time and circumstance)
(20)
Śāstra-dṛṣṭi-yukta (sees according to the śāstra)
(21)
Śuci (pure)
(22)
Vaśī (self-controlled)
(23)
Sthira (steady)
(24)
Damanaśīla (self-restrained)
(25)
Kṣamaśīla (forgiving)
(26)
Gambhīra (sober)
(27)
Dhṛtimān (firm)
(28)
Sama-saumya-carita (equipoised and of a peaceful character)
(29)
Vadānya (magnanimous)
(30)
Dharmika (follows the path of dharma)
(31)
Śūra (valiant)
(32)
Karuṇa (merciful)
(33)
nada (respectful)
(34)
Dakṣiṇa (liberal)
(35)
Vinayī (humble)
(36)
Lajjāyukta (shy)
(37)
Śaraṇāgata-pālaka (Protector of those who are surrendered)
(38)
Sukhī (happy)
(39)
Bhakta-bandhu (a Friend of the devotees)
(40)
Prema-vaśya (controlled through prema)
(41)
Sarva-sukhakārī (always happy)
(42)
Pratāpī (influential)
(43)
rtimān (famous)
(44)
Lokānurakta (popular with everyone)
(45)
Sādhudigera samāśraya (partial towards sādhus)
(46)
Nārī-manohārī (He steals the minds of women)
(47)
Sarvārādhya (worshipped by all)
(48)
Samṛddhimān (most opulent)
(49)
Śreṣṭha (superior)
(50)
Aiśvarya-yukta (the possessor of opulence)

These fifty qualities may be found to a minute degree in all jīvas, but they are fully present like an ocean within Kṛṣṇa. Besides these fifty, there are five great attributes that are fully present within Kṛṣṇa and expansions such as Śiva and other Devatās.

(1) Sarvadā svarūpa-samprāpta (changeless)
(2)
Sarvajña (omniscient)
(3)
Nitya-nūtana (ever-fresh)
(4)
Saccidānanda-ghabhūta-svarūpa (having a form of condensed eternity, knowledge and bliss)
(5)
Akhila-siddhi-vaśakā (possessing all mystic perfections).

There are another five qualities that are present in Nārāyaṇa, the Lord of Vaikuṇṭḥa, and Kṛṣṇa possesses these in full. however Śiva, the Devatās and the jīvas do not have these attributes.

(1) Avicintya-mahā-śaktitva (He possesses great inconceivable potencies)
(2)
Koṭi-brahmāṇḍa-vigrahatva (His body produces infinite universes)
(3)
Sakala-avatārajatva (He is the source of all avatāras)
(4)
Hata-śatru-sugati-dāyakatva (He awards liberation to those He kills)
(5)
Ātmārama-gaṇer ākarṣakatva (He attracts those who are self-satisfied)

These five qualities are found in Nārāyaṇa and are present in a wonderful way within Kṛṣṇa. Besides these sixty attributes, there are an additional four qualities that manifest within Kṛṣṇa, which do not manifest even in the Nārāyaṇa.

(1) Sarva-lokera camatkāriṇī-līlā-kallola-samudra (He charms everyone with His līlā which are an ocean of bliss).
(2)
Śṛṅgāra-rasera atulya-prema-śobha-viśiṣṭa preṣṭha-maṇḍala (In śṛṅgāra-rasa, He is surrounded by His most beloved devotees who have unparalleled prema).
(3)
Tri-jagatera cittākarṣī mūra-gīta-gāna (He attracts the three worlds with the music of His flute).
(4) His form has such amazing beauty which cannot be equal to or greater in the creation, that it stuns both animate and inanimate beings. Possessing these sixty-four qualities, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the personification of the ocean of all nectarean
rasa.

FOURTH SUBJECT

In the previous three subjects, bhagavat-tattva (knowledge of Bhagavān) was explained. The fourth, fifth and sixth subjects speak about jīva-tattva. The fourth subject discusses the position of the jīva (jīva-svarūpa). The jīvas manifest as vibhinnāṁśa (separated expansions) under the influence of the marginal potency of Hari’s parā-śakti, just as one lights an unlimited number of smaller lamps from a greater lamp. Although the jīva possesses a spiritual form and is by nature spiritual, he is extremely finite and subservient. Due to this subservient nature, he becomes conditioned by māyā and develops adversity towards Kṛṣṇa. The distinction between Īśvara and the jīva is this – both are actually spiritual by nature, yet by nature, the one who is infinite, the Master of Māyā, His eternal maidservant, is Īśvara. One who is naturally dominated by Māyā, even in a liberated state, and is finite, is the jīva. He remains free from Māyā when he is subordinate to Kṛṣṇa. A pure jīva is characterised as having a spiritual nature, and he possesses the fifty qualities enumerated previously in minute form. All these qualities are spiritual. There is no māyika nature or qualities within a pure jīva.


FIFTH SUBJECT

The jīva is a pencil ray of the spiritual sun which is Kṛṣṇa. He is infinitesimal and subordinate. If he is subservient to Kṛṣṇa, he will have no misery and can enjoy supreme bliss. He becomes averse to Kṛṣṇa as his desires for sense enjoyment gradually manifests, and becomes bound by Māyā to her irresistible wheel of karma, experiencing the illusory pleasure and pain of this material world. Māyā’s wheel of karma comprises of pāpa and puṇya, pleasure and pain, and high and low social positions. In this way, sometimes he may attain a celestial realm, and sometimes he may attain a hellish condition wandering through the wombs of eighty-four lakhs of species.


SIXTH SUBJECT

Though bound to Māyā’s wheel, the jīva is constitutionally spiritual by nature, therefore he is qualified to become free from Māyā; the jīva cannot attain liberation by engaging in māyika activities. Thus, it is not possible to become free from Māyā by performing puṇya and pious deeds. “I am a jīva, a spiritual particle and Māyā is contemptible to me!” – even such an understanding gained through knowledge and renunciation will not liberate one from Māyā. When one’s hidden and suppressed mood of kṛṣṇa-dāsya (Servitorship to Krsna) arises, the impending results of liberation will appear. As this nature manifests, one’s subservient nature to Māyā disappears over time. Who can awaken one’s nature which is extremely suppressed? It cannot be done through endeavours in karma, jñāna or vairāgya (renunciation); thus, one whose own nature has been awakened due to gradual good fortune, may awaken that suppressed inherent nature of a jīva through the power of his association. Two things are necessary in this regard. One who desires to awaken his inherent nature, attains some characteristics of surrender by gaining śraddhā due to previous bhakty-unmukhi-sukṛti (sukṛti from previously engaging in bhakti) this is one instance.*

By the power of such sukṛti he attains suitable sādhu-saṅga – this is the second instance. One can only be called a sādhu when one has the good fortune of awakening one’s inherent nature through the association of other sādhus. Bhāva only arises by cultivating hari-nāma etc. by the potency of sādhu-saṅga, and eventually prema awakens. As the quantity of prema arises, the quantity of mukti manifests as a concomitant result.

* ānukūlyasya saṅkalpaḥ prātikūlyasya varjanam
rakṣiṣyatīti viśvāso goptṛtve varaṇaṁ tathā
ātma-nikṣepa-kārpaṇye ṣaḍ-vidhā śaraṇāgatiḥ

(“Accepting those things favourable to bhakti, rejecting those things that are unfavourable, faith that the Lord will give protection, accepting Him as one’s protector, giving oneself to Him completely, and humility – these are the six divisions of surrender.”)

The meaning is this – when the jīva comes to knows for sure that, “This māyika world is my prison-house and it should be rejected, and karma-kāṇḍa, impersonal jñāna-kāṇḍa, great opulence, or the process of yoga that leads to monism can certainly never bring me to my inherent nature, then I should reject whatever is unfavourable to kṛṣṇa-bhakti, accept that Kṛṣṇa is my sole Protector and Maintainer” – with such faith, he accepts the desire of Kṛṣṇa and with the mood of an akiñcana (one who possesses nothing), he surrenders at Kṛṣṇa’s feet. These are the characteristics of one who has transcendental śraddhā.


SEVENTH SUBJECT
Sambandha-jñāna (knowledge of one’s relationship with Kṛṣṇa) manifests upon discussing the subjects from 1 to 6 in association with sādhus. The types of sambandha-jñāna are in this seventh subject. An inquisitive jīva asks these questions – (1) Who am I? (2) Whom do I belong to? (3) What is my relationship with this world? By discussing these three topics properly, a jīva may observe, “I am anu-caitanya (finite consciousness), I am an eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa, and the whole universe is a manifestation which is both different and non-different from Kṛṣṇa (bhedābheda-prakāśa). Kṛṣṇa is the only relationship. The arguments of the vivartavādis are futile and non-Vedic.* Due to Kṛṣna’s acintya-śakti, all the jīvas and all the universes are eternally separate and non-separate from Him. This material universe is not our place; it is simply a prison house. From this knowledge, faith in exclusive kṛṣṇa-bhakti arises, in other words, firm belief emerges.

* Translators Note: Vivartavāda is the monistic concept of Ādi Śaṅkara that the world is an apparent transformation of Brahman under the effect of māyā.


EIGHTH SUBJECT
From sambandhajñāna, exclusive bhakti and śraddhā by means of proper association manifests; Now, what will give pleasure to Kṛṣṇa – with this on mind, one must approach and ask a sad-guru. A sad-guru, knowing a person to have śraddhā and eligible for bhakti, bestows pure kṛṣṇa-bhakti. His characteristics are as follows:

anyābhilāṣitā-śūnyaṁ jñāna-karmādy-anāvṛtam
ānukūlyena kṛṣṇānuśīlanaṁ bhaktir uttamā

(“The highest type of bhakti is that which is free from all desires, not covered by jñāna, karma etc. and which is favourable for service to Kṛṣṇa.” – Bhakti-rasāmṛṭa-sindhu 1.1.11)

Whatever is favourable in the worship of Kṛṣṇa, whose from is sacchidānanda, along with His nāme, form, qualities and pastimes, is considered to be the highest (uttama), in other words, it is śuddha-bhakti. In all actions in life, it is one’s duty to cultivate the various limbs of bhakti and accept whatever relationships and mood is favourable for bhajana. Thus, one should live a life with a favourable disposition towards bhajana, avoiding those activities, relations and mood that are unfavourable. In order to achieve this, a little determination and attention in bhajana-kriyā is necessary. Bhajana with effort is required in order to for the inherent nature of the jīva to manifest. Bhajana must be pure – for this purpose there should be no other desire except to improve ones bhajana. Therefore, it is necessary to reject desires for sense-enjoyment and liberation. Indeed, one may endeavour for jñāna and karma to maintain one’s life; but any aspects of jñāna and karma that may obscure one’s tendency towards śuddha-bhakti should be carefully discarded. One should refrain from engaging in monistic brahmajñāna and activities that are devoid of any characteristics of bhakti.

Śravaṇa (hearing), kīrtana (chanting), smaraṇa (remembering), paricaryā (worshipping the Lord’s feet), arcana (Deity worship), vandana (offering prayers), dāsya (servitorship), sakhya (friendship) and ātmanivedana (surrendering oneself completely) – these are the nine limbs of bhakti. Again, when all these main limbs are subdivided, the limbs of bhakti have been described as being sixty-four. Amongst these, some of them have the characteristics of being regulations (vidhi), and some have the characteristics of being prohibitions (niṣedha). Those that have the characteristics of regulations have five main aspects – chanting hari-nāma, residing in the dhāma of Hari, serving the form of Hari, serving the devotees of Hari, and studying the śāstra that delineates bhakti to Hari.

Giving up aparādha*, carefully rejecting the company of those who are not Vaiṣṇavas, one should not make many disciples in order to increase one’s pride of being a guru, one should stop reading many books in order to give elaborate explanations, one should reject worldly loss and gain, one should no be influenced by grief or bewilderment etc., one should not criticise other Devas and śāstra, one should never hear blasphemy of Viṣṇu or the Vaiṣṇavas, one should not cultivate any low-class behaviour that is of an unfavourable mood, and one should not inflict suffering on living beings – it is extremely important to observe these ten prohibitions.

* There are two kinds of aparādha, namely sevāparādha (those committed during service) and nāmāparādha (those committed to the Holy Name). One should deliberate upon sevāparādha in serving the Deity. The general devotees should completely refrain from nāmāparādha. (1) Criticising a sādhu who chants the Name. (2) Considering Bhagavān to be separate from His Name, form, qualities and pastimes, and considering other universal controllers such as Śiva etc. to be separate from Bhagavān. (3) Neglecting the guru who gives instructions on the Name. (4) Neglecting the śāstra that speaks about the glories of the Name. (5) Thinking that the glories of the Name are just stavas (prayers). (6) Considering the Name to be imaginary. (7) Engaging in pāpa on the strength of the Name. (8) Considering the Name, which is a transcendental touchstone and the embodiment of conscious rasa, to be equal to other types of puṇya or auspicious works. (9) Instructing persons who are unqualified and devoid of śraddha about the Holy Name. (10) Chanting the Name with the ego of ‘me’ and ‘mine’ – these are the ten nāmāparādhas. Nāmāparādha is extremely severe; it does not vanish except by constantly chanting the Name. A disciple will endeavour to remain free from nāmāparādha as soon as he accepts the Name.

Performing kīrtana glorifying Kṛṣṇa’s name, form, qualities and pastimes is the greatest amongst all the limbs of bhakti. When this type of sādhanabhakti is performed according to the instructions of the śāstra, it is known as vaidhi-bhakti. By constantly engaging in this with firm śraddhā, bhāva-bhakti arises. There is another type of sādhana-bhakti, which is exceptional and that is known as rāgānugābhakti. This bhakti is perfect within itself (svataḥsiddhā) and consists of the attachment (rāga) that the residents of Vraja possess for Śrī Kṛṣṇa. It is seen that some person with sukṛti may follow this due to the influence of intense longing. His sādhana-bhakti may be said to be rāgānugābhakti. Thereupon, there is no reliance upon the governance of the śāstra. His only motivation is the desire for service. These two kinds of sādhanabhakti are under abhidheyatattva (the principle of methodology).


NINTH SUBJECT
The ninth subject is the prayojana (ultimate goal) of kṛṣṇa-prema. While practicing exclusive bhakti with śraddhā, and thus following the mood of the inhabitants of Vraja, bhāva for Kṛṣṇa will arise. Then, one’s efforts in vaidhi-sādhana become mixed with bhāva, and all one’s endeavours become full of bhāva. That bhāva gradually makes one entitled to take shelter of the various rasas of śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya and madhura where one attains the state of prema. Śānta-rasa is far from Vraja, while dāsya-prema is an active rasa in Vraja. When ullāsamayi-rati (the initial stage of increasing ecstatic attachment) combines with possessiveness towards Kṛṣṇa (mamatā), it becomes prema; the name of that rasa is dāsya-rasa. In dāsyarasa there is an abundance of awe. When there is intimacy (viśrambha) devoid of possessiveness and awe, in other words, when a sense of confidence arises, then it takes on the name praṇaya (deep affection); this is known as sakhyarasa. If this rasa is combined with sneha (affection with tenderness), then it is said to be vātsalyarasa. When all the qualities of vātsalyarasa become infused with desire, then this takes on the form of śṛṅgāra-rasa. Śṛṅgāra-rasa is above all rasas. This rasa can be relished by remaining in Vraja while taking shelter of some of the sakhīs of Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, and accepting the mood of considering oneself to be protected by them (pālyabhāva). Kṛṣṇa’s form is sat-cit (full of existence and knowledge), and the principle of ānanda (bliss) which is non-different from Him is Śrīmatī Rādhikā. Her sakhīs are kāyavyūha (direct bodily expansions) of the parāśakti, and are included as svarūpa-śakti-tattva. When the prayojana in the form of prema is attained and the jīva is purified, he is counted amongst the servitors of those sakhīs and eternally experiences the blissful pleasure of serving Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa, which is the highest attainment for the jīvas. This is highest and most wonderful mood of the cit-tattva (spiritual principle). The amazing bliss found in liberation by merging into the impersonal Brahman is not there. As Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī has given thus:

ādau śraddhā tataḥ sādhu-saṅgo ‘tha bhajana-kriyā
tato ‘nartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt tato niṣṭhā rucis tataḥ
athāsaktis tato bhāvas tataḥ premābhyudañcati
sādhakānām ayaṁ premṇaḥ prādurbhāve bhavet kramaḥ

(“Initially there must be śraddhā, Then there is sādhu-saṅga [association with dhus]. Thereafter one engages in bhajana-kriyā [executing devotional activities]. Then there is anartha-nivṛtti [the removal of unnecessary habits]. Then niṣṭhā, [resolute determination] follows. Thereafter, one develops ruci [taste] and asakti [attachment]. Then bhāva [divine emotions] appears, and this gives rise to prema. This is the gradual development for the sādhaka in the attainment of prema.”- Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu 1.4.15-16)

syād dhṛḍheyaṁ ratiḥ premnā prodyān snehaḥ kramād ayam
syān manaḥ praṇayo rāgo’nurāgo bhāva ity api

(“When rati becomes steady, prema arises. This gradually develops into sneha, māna, praṇaya, rāga, anurāga and mahā-bhāva.)

bījam-īkṣu sa ca rasaḥ sa-guḍaḥ khaṇḍa eva saḥ
sa śarkarā śitā sa ca sa yathā syāt śitotpalā

(“This is like a seed which eventually becomes sugar cane, sugar cane juice, molasses, dried molasses, unrefined sugar, refined sugar and then rock candy.” – Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, Sthāyi-bhāva. Ch.44.)

Initially, there must be śraddhā, from that is sādhu-saṅga, then bhajana-kriyā, and then complete anartha-nivṛtti, after anartha-nivṛtti there is ruci and asakti and eventually bhāva will arise; after bhāva there will be prema. The other name for bhāva is rati. The crystallised sugar of rati becomes prema; prema is turned into sneha, māna, praṇaya, rāga, anurāga, until it reaches mahā-bhāva. Just as sugar cane becomes sugar cane juice, then molasses, then dried molasses, then unrefined sugar, then refined sugar, then rock candy and eventually is made into sweets – the process of prema is like this.

The Daśa-mūla are the teachings that Śrī Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu gave to Rūpa, Sanātana etc. This small book is the essence of the Daśa-mūla (Daśa-mūla-niryāsa). Anyone who desires to become a pure Vaiṣṇava by accepting the teachings of Śrīman Mahāprabhu, must first worship the Daśa-mūla-niryāsa. Śrī Gurudeva will show him all the tattvas within this essence in brief. With śraddhā and respect, one should take shelter at the feet of a guru; from the feet of the guru, one attains bhajana-śīkṣā (teachings on bhajana); through bhajana, all anarthas will be removed; then gradually, after niṣṭhā etc. bhāva will appear. The first limb of bhajana is to worship the Daśa-mūla. Upon giving the disciple the Daśa-mūla-niryāsa, the guru will perform pañca-saṁskāra.*

* tāpaḥ pūṇḍraṁ tathā nāma mantro yāgaś ca pañcamaḥ
amī hi pañca-saṁskārāḥ paramaikānti hetavaḥ

The brief meaning of this is as followsWhen a little śraddhā arises in the disciple, he should go and approach a sad-guru. Before coming to the feet of Śrī Guru, the disciple experiences a certain amount of difficulty, meaning he feels repentance. “O deliverer of the fallen! I am suffering greatly, having fallen into this terrible ocean of mundane existence. Have mercy upon me and accept me as the dust of your lotus feet, for I have no one else” – repenting in this way, the disciple falls at the feet of Śrī Guru. No one has the right to accept dīksā unless they repent in this way, and in order for him to keep his resolve, Gurudeva tests the disciple with hot brands (tāpta) in the form of a cakra etc. But the supremely merciful Śrī Caitanyadeva, the saviour of the age of Kali, who appeared in the form of the jagad-ācārya, has instructed that the disciple’s body should be decorated with sandalwood paste etc. instead. The repentant, eligible jīva should first purify himself by marking the body as a temple of Hari with tilaka. At the time of repenting, through knowledge of the Daśa-mūla, remorse should certainly be perpetuated. If permanent remorse is seen, then it is advised that he should be given twelve tilaka markings etc. At that time, the disciple takes his second birth. Thus, he is given a name in connection with bhakti. Along with the name, it is necessary to give an understanding of svarūpa-siddhi (the stage of becoming aware of one’s spiritual identity). Svarūpasiddhi should be accompanied with a mantra in relation to Śrī Kṛṣṇa. The substance of the mantra is that by accepting the name of Bhagavān, the disciple will perfect his relationship with Him. Yāga in pañcama-saṁskāra is where one offers service to śālagrāma, the Deity etc. so that a jīva who is presently absorbed in the relationships of this world, may develop a relationship with Kṛṣṇa. Pañcama-saṁskāra has two categories – primary and ultimate. A person who has already attained prema offers worship by mānasa-sevā (service within the purified mind). Śrīman Mahāprabhu gave his supreme advice to Śrī Raghunātha Dāsa Gosvāmi:

grāmya-kathā nā śunibe grāmya-vārtā nā kahibe
bhāla nā khāibe āra bhāla nā paribe
amānī mānada hañā kṛṣṇa-nāma sadā la’be
vraje rādhā-kṛṣṇa-sevā mānase karibe

(“Do not listen to common talk and do not speak such words. Do not eat luxuriously nor dress nicely. Do not expect any honour, but offer all respect to others. Always chant kṛṣṇa-nāma, and within your mind render service to Rādhā-Krṣṇa in Vṛndāvana.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Antya-līlā 6.236-237)

In regards to the devotee who has attained bhāva, there is an instruction concerning bodily conduct in the first two lines. In the last two lines, there is an instruction about bhajana and worship. The external manifestation of bhajana is to accepting kṛṣṇa-nāma with a mood of offering respect unto others, without expecting any for oneself. Engaging in mānasa-sevā to Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa in Vraja is a confidential secret. This service is aṣṭa-kālīna (offering during the eight periods of the day). Śrī Gurudeva will give instructions on this in accordance with the śāstra.

If one does not engage in bhajana after attaining the Daśa-mūla, then anarthas will not be eliminated. There are four classes of anarthas, namely svarūpa-bhrama (bewilderment concerning one’s inherent nature), asat-tṛṣṇā (the desire for material objects), aparādha (offences), and hṛdaya-daurbalya (weakness of heart). The jīva forgets his inherent nature and descends into the illusory identification of being something else, therefore svarūpa-bhrama must be removed first. Svarūpa-bhrama may not vanish in one day, thus by engaging in service to Kṛṣṇa it will gradually disappear. “I am kṛṣṇa-dāsa” – the jīva’s intrinsic knowledge (svarūpajñāna) solely leads to this identification. When one engages in service to Kṛṣna along with this identity, then that is actually service to Kṛṣṇa. Svarūpa-jñāna arises by the grace of the guru. A disciple should especially endeavour to be conscious of his own self, otherwise this first anartha will not disappear. The further away the first anartha is, the further the second anartha, asat-tṛṣṇā, will be. Asat-tṛṣṇā is the thirst for objects connected with the material body. Celestial pleasures, gratification of the physical senses, the happiness derived from wealth and followers – all this is asat-tṛṣṇā. As one’s inherent nature becomes clearer, the amount of detachment to such unsavoury things will definitely increase. Certainly, special care must be taken to avoid nāmāparādha. The wealth of prema is soon achieved if one continues to chant the Name and gives up nāmāparādha. Laziness, subjugated by vulgar things, bewilderment due to lamentation etc., arguments that distract one from śuddha-bhakti, miserliness to engage one’s life energy in the service of Kṛṣṇa, rejecting one’s natural humility by identifying with one’s race, wealth, knowledge, followers and beauty, moving according to the influence of adharmika tendencies or advice, idleness in examining superstitions and dogma, abandoning mercy due to anger, bewilderment, envy or intolerance, cultivating the desire for fame and with deceit and vanity identifying oneself as a Vaiṣṇava, and torturing other jīvas with a desire for obtaining wealth, women, and sense-enjoyment – all these various activities arise from hṛdaya-daurbalya. One who is indifferent to the siddhānta of the Daśa-mūla will never prosper in kṛṣṇa-bhakti. Whenever any eligible disciple approaches Śrī Guru, the disciple must read this book before being given the pañca-saṁskāra in the Śrī Caitanya sampradāya. If this is the case, then unworthy persons can no longer defile and tarnish the pure sampradāya of Śrī Śrī Mahāprabhu.

(‘Daśa-mūla Niryāsa’ — The Essence of the Ten Foundational Principles – was first published in Sajjana Toṣaṇī Vol.8, issue 9 in 1897 and translated into English by Swami B.V. Giri)
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