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Chapter Thirty-five
Mādhurya-rasa, Part Five

by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura
(translated by Śrī Sarvabhāvana Prabhu)

The intimate and intricate details of ālambanatattva, the foundation of kṛṣṇaprema, now kept the mind of Vijaya constantly preoccupied. His heart desired nothing else, and there was a growing disinterest in all material dealings. Today, Vijaya quickly ate some simple, readily available prasādam, and then hastened enmaddened to the Rādhā-kānta temple, where he offered prostrated obeisances to the lotus feet of Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī. Lifting him up affectionately, Śrīla Gosvāmī embraced him and made him sit down close by.

Without wasting a word, Vijaya enquired submissively, “Prabhu, I am yearning to learn about the different uddīpanas of mādhurya-rasa. Kindly teach me.”

Gosvāmī, “The uddīpanas in mādhurya-rasa are guṇa, the personal qualities; nāma, the names; carita, the activities; maṇḍana, the decorations; and the items sambandhi, directly, and taṭastha, indirectly, related to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Śrī Rādhā, and the beloved gopīs.”

Vijaya, “Of what type are the guṇas?”

Gosvāmī, “In mādhurya-rasa uddīpana, the guṇas are of three kinds: mānasika, of the mind; vācika, of speech; and kāyika, physical attributes.”

Vijaya, “What are the mānasikaguṇas?”

Gosvāmī, “The mānasikaguṇas are many, for instance, gratitude, compassion, forgiveness, kindness, and the like.”

Vijaya, “What are the vācikaguṇas?”

Gosvāmī, “The vācikaguṇas are sweet and pleasing words that delight the ears.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, please enumerate the kāyikaguṇas.”

Gosvāmī, “The kāyikaguṇas are numerous, prominent amongst them are vayasā, the age, of yauvana, fresh youthfulness; rūpa, splendorous and lustrous beauty; lāvaṇya, charming loveliness; saundarya, beautiful figure and posture; abhirūpatā, the ability to enhance the beauty of others; mādhurya, sweetness; and mārdava, mildness, gentility, and sensitivity. As just mentioned, one of the kāyika guṇas is yauvana, fresh youthfulness, which in mādhuryarasa is of four kinds: vayaḥsandhi, transition to adolescence; navyavayasā, new adolescence; vyaktavayasā, blooming adolescence; and pūrṇavayasā, the prime of youthfulness.”

Vijaya, “What is vayaḥsandhi?”

Gosvāmī, “The transition period between bālya, childhood and yauvana, youth, is called vayaḥsandhi; it is also called prathama-kaiśora. The prior ages are bālya, childhood, the age from one to five years, which leads to paugaṇḍa, six to ten years. The sweet charm of the awakening adolescence of Kṛṣṇa and His beloved girlfriends in vayaḥsandhi is the uddīpana causing the first stirrings of mādhurya-rasa between Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs.”

Vijaya, “Kindly elucidate navyavayasā?”

Gosvāmī, “Navyavayasā is the very beginning of yauvana, when one actually enters into youth-hood. In the gopīs, there is the rising of the breasts, amorous restlessness in the glances of the eyes, a hint of a dancing smile upon the face and lips, emotional agitation of the heart, and a little unmindfulness.”

Vijaya, “How is vyaktavayasā?”

At this point in the discourse, a Vaiṣṇava belonging to the Śrī Sampradāya and a sannyāsī scholar of the Śaṅkara school came into the temple and offered obeisances to the Deities. A Śrī Vaiṣṇava generally considers himself as a male servitor of the Lord, whereas a Śaṅkara sannyāsī has plunged into the dry meditation of the nirviśeṣa-brahma. Therefore, neither of these visitors was attracted to the spiritual identity and sentiment of the vrajagopīs. Discussing details of mādhuryarasa in the presence of those who are attached to male identities is taboo, so Śrīla Gosvāmī and Vijaya quickly curtailed their confidential discussion and changed to an appropriate topic of philosophical conversation before the visitors. After a short while, the two pilgrims left for the siddhabakula tree of Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura. Smiling slightly, Vijaya repeated his question to Śrīla Gosvāmī.

Gosvāmī, “The symptoms of vyakta-vayasā, blossoming youth, upon the gopīs are highly-raised blooming breasts, three beautiful lines across the abdomen, and the whole body shining with the lustre and radiance of youth.”

Vijaya, “Kindly explain pūrṇavayasā?”

Gosvāmī, “In pūrṇavayasā, full youthfulness, the hips are large, the waistline becomes slender, the body possesses a lustrous, radiant complexion of extraordinary beauty, and the breasts are large, heavy and shapely and appear to overburden the thighs that resemble the stems of banana trees. Some vrajasundarīs, even though in a stage of earlier youth, appear to be in pūrṇa-yauvana, the prime of youth, because of their early maturity and overall physical exquisiteness.”

Vijaya, “By your grace, I have understood the different vayasās, ages. Now kindly explain rūpa.”

Gosvāmī, “When a young girl looks lustrous and beautiful even without make-up and jewellery, she is said to possess rūpa, extraordinary beauty. In addition, her exquisite bodily features are perfectly proportioned.”

Vijaya, “What is lāvaṇya, charming loveliness?”

Gosvāmī, “Lāvaṇya is best described by the effulgence that glows from within a pearl—such is the charm and radiance of her bodily complexion and inner attractiveness.”

Vijaya, “What is saundarya, beauty of form?”

Gosvāmī, “In saundarya, all the limbs of the body are delicate, graceful, beautifully shaped, and in ideal proportion to one another in a most charming way.”

Vijaya, “What is abhirūpatā, to enhance the beauty of others?”

Gosvāmī, “Abhirūpatā is the potency by one’s own wonderful qualities to increase the attractiveness of others nearby, appearing to lend one’s beauty, even causing others to resemble oneself in beautiful bodily features.”

Vijaya, “What is mādhurya, sweetness?”

Gosvāmī, “Mādhurya is when the sweet charm and unlimited beauty of the body is inexplicably and indescribably exquisite.”

Vijaya, “What is mārdava, gentleness and sensitivity?”

Gosvāmī, “Mārdava is when the body manifests gentleness and sensitivity to even the most delicate contact. It is of three levels: kaniṣṭha, lesser; madhyama, intermediate; and uttama, highest.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I have understood the meanings of the different guṇas, kindly now elucidate the other uddīpanas, starting with nāma.”

Gosvāmī, “The many names of Śrī Rādhā and Śrī Kṛṣṇa, which are saturated with sublime transcendental bhāva and rasa are called nāma.”

Vijaya, “What is carita?”

Gosvāmī, “Carita, character and inner nature, manifests in two ways: līlā, transcendental pastimes; and anubhāva, subordinate, consequent ecstasy. After the full realization of the līlā, then anubhāva can be attained. Previously, we have elucidated anubhāva after describing vibhāva.”

Vijaya, “What are the līlās?”

Gosvāmī, “The līlās are the eternal, ever-fresh, and unlimited pastimes and sports of Śrī Kṛṣṇa in the company of His beloved devotees. Some of the līlās are carukṛda, sweet nectarean playfulness; nṛtya, dancing; veṇu-vedanā, flute playing; go-dohana, milking the cows; calling and counting the cows atop Govardhana Hill; and herding the cows from place to place.”

Vijaya, “Kindly describe the caru-kṛda līlās in more detail.”

Gosvāmī, “The caru-kṛda līlās include the famous and captivating rāsalīlā dance, hide and seek games within the Vṛndāvana forests, and kandukakṛda, playing with a ball. These charming pastimes are unlimited and most beautiful.”

Vijaya, “What are the maṇḍana, decorations?”

Gosvāmī, “Maṇḍana is of four types: vastra, clothing; bhūṣaṇa, jewellery; mālya, garlands; and anulepana, oils, ointments, and paste—anything smeared upon the body.”

Vijaya, “Now I have understood those. Please continue with sambandhi, connected items.”

Gosvāmī, “Sambandhi is of two varieties: lagna or saṁyuktā, direct conjunction; and sannihita, close association.”

Vijaya, “What are the lagna-sambandhi?”

Gosvāmī, “The sounds of the vaṁśī, flute, śṛṅga, horn, and singing; plus the fragrance of perfumes; the tinkling of jewelleries; foot impressions upon the sand; the vibration of a vīṇā; artistic dress; and so on are all lagna-sambandhi, directly conjoined with Kṛṣṇa.”

Vijaya, “Kindly expand upon Kṛṣṇa’s nectarean flute playing.”

Gosvāmī, “Of all the lagnas, the mysteriously sweet and all-attractive melodies that manifest as Kṛṣṇa puts His lips to the muralī are the most enchanting and powerful of all the uddīpanas that evoke mādhurya-rasa.”

Vijaya, “What are the sannihitasambandhi, items that are closely associated?”

Gosvāmī, “The list of sannihita-sambandhi is endless, some prominent ones are flowers and garlands that once adorned the Divine Couple; peacock feathers; the dust of Vṛndāvana; rocks or other items from Śrī Govardhana; the cows and calves; the cowherder’s cane, flute and horn; someone dear to Kṛṣṇa; dust-clouds raised by homeward-bound herds of cows just before sunset; Śrī Vṛndāvana-dhāma; vṛndāvanāśritā, the residents and living entities who are sheltered in Vṛndāvana-dhāma; Śrī Govardhana Hill; the River Yāmuna; the site of the rāsa-līlā dance, and so on.”

Vijaya, “What is meant by vṛndāvanāśritā, the living entities and residents sheltered in Vṛndāvana-dhāma?”

Gosvāmī, “This uddīpana indicates all the residents and living entities of Vṛndāvana-dhāma which includes the birds, such as the peacock; the bumble bees; the deer; the verdant bowers and groves; the creepers and trees; the tulasī plant; the kamikā, laburnum flowers; the kadamba tree and flowers; and many other such items all of which are so typical of Śrī Vṛndāvana-dhāma.”

Vijaya, “What are the taṭasthā-uddīpana, stimuli of a neutral nature?”

Gosvāmī, “Some of the prominent items of this category of uddīpana are the moonlight, the clouds and lightning, the spring and autumn seasons, the full moon, the wind, the sky, and the pleasant air and atmosphere.”

Hearing these nectarean elucidations, Vijaya fell into a thoughtful silence, as he pondered the uddīpanas of mādhurya-rasa. Śrīla Gosvāmī was satisfied to observe that Vijaya was absorbing this most esoteric knowledge very well. Then, starting from within his heart, Vijaya felt an inexplicable current of exalted bhāva envelop his consciousness as uddīpana-bhāva mingled with ālambana. Anubhāvas began to appear upon the person of Vijaya; his body erupted with horripilation, and in a choked voice he asked, “Prabhu, kindly shower me with your mercy. Explain the anubhāvas to me in detail so that my understanding of the characteristics and activities of Kṛṣṇa that you have already partially revealed in the discussion of His līlā is more complete.”

Gosvāmī, “Anubhāvas are of three kinds: alaṅkāra; ornamental moods; udbhāsvara, bodily; and vācika, verbal.”

Vijaya, “What are the alaṅkāra, moods that ornament?”

Gosvāmī, “Alaṅkāra is of twenty moods, which are manifestations of the inner feelings of the gopīs of Vraja when they are still in yauvana, the prime of youth. These alaṅkāras are grouped under three headings: aṅgaja, manifested by the body; ayatnaja, manifested spontaneously by the self; and svabhāvaja, manifested by one’s nature.

“The three aṅgaja are (1) bhāva, seeds of ecstasy; (2) hāva, gestures; and (3) helā, amorous dalliance. The seven ayatnaja are (4) śobhā, beauty; (5) kānti, lustre; (6) dīpti, brilliance; (7) mādhurya, sweetness; (8) pragalbhatā, impudence; (9) audārya, magnanimity; and (10) dhairya, stability and patience. The ten svabhāvaja are (11) imitating līlā, pastimes; (12) vilāsa, enjoyment; (13) vicchitti, breaking off; (14) vibhrama, puzzlement; (15) kilakiñcita, a particular range of ecstasies manifested upon seeing Kṛṣṇa; (16) moṭṭāyita, awakening of amorous desires by remembrance; (17) kuṭtāmita, externally contrary and angry, but happy within; (18) vivvoka, in anger neglecting the entreaties of the nāyaka; (19) lalita, charming posture and movement of the eyes; and (20) vikṛta, to express feelings through actions rather than words.

Vijaya, “In this context what is meant by bhāva?”

Gosvāmī, “Bhāva here indicates the initial transformation of transcendental emotion as the purified citta comes under siege through the ujjvalarasa, conjugal mellow, of rati. The pristine state of the heart that is immersed in rati is called sattva, and when cause for ecstatic transformation arises the first stirrings of emotion are compared to an awakening seed and are referred to as bhāva.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, please kindly explain hāva, gestures.”

Gosvāmī, “On account of the slight budding of bhāva, the symptoms of hāva arise: the neck is tilted coyly, the eyes dilate and dance, and the eyebrows arch beautifully and rise upwards.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, what is helā, passion.”

Gosvāmī, “When the emotion indicated by hāva expands turbulently and explicitly indicates amorous passionate desire, it is called helā.’’

Vijaya, “What is śobhā, beauty?”

Gosvāmī, “Through engagement in amorous pastimes, śobhā—beauty, youthfulness, and desire for pleasure—exude from and further beautify the subtle embellishments of the body.”

Vijaya, “What is kānti, lustre?”

Gosvāmī, “When the passions of erotic love are satisfied and the gopī feels great transcendental bliss to have pleased Kṛṣṇa, the radiant beauty of fulfilment is called kānti.”

Vijaya, “What is dīpti, brilliantly shining?

Gosvāmī, “When the gopī in her vayasā, age of blossoming youth, with the mood of bhoga, the desire for amorous enjoyment, offers herself to Kṛṣṇa at the appropriate deśa, place, and kāla, time, then her guṇa, qualities, stoke kānti to even greater brilliance and wide-spread efflorescence, then this is called dīpti, brilliantly shining.”

Vijaya, “What is mādhurya in this context?”

Gosvāmī, “Here mādhurya indicates the delicate grace and exquisite dexterity that is maintained by the gopīs under all circumstances as they execute all endeavours for Kṛṣṇa’s happiness.”

Vijaya, “What is pragalbhatā, boldness?”

Gosvāmī, “Boldness and firm resolution in making romantic overtures is called pragalbhatā. The lover, distressed by amorous desire, is directly intrepid in making physical contact with her lover.”

Vijaya, “What is audārya, magnanimity?”

Gosvāmī, “When the most qualified and attractive gopī is modest, courteous and self-controlled under all conditions, it is known as audārya, magnanimity.”

Vijaya, “What is dhairya, steadiness?”

Gosvāmī, “When highest sentiments of amorous love are maintained without interruption and perturbation, the heart possesses dhairya, stability of emotion.”

Vijaya, “In this context what is līlā?”

Gosvāmī, “Prompted by love, when the lover playfully imitates the beloved’s manner of dressing and acting, this is known as līlā.”

Vijaya, “What is vilāsa, enjoyment?”

Gosvāmī, “When the gopī, wishing to let the desire of her heart for union be known to Kṛṣṇa, suggests through movements of her body, hips, smiling lips and dancing eyes, while sitting or walking, this is called vilāsa, indicating the desire for amorous enjoyment.”

Vijaya, “What is vicchitti?”

Gosvāmī, “If even with sparse decoration and dress kānti is produced to attract Kṛṣṇa, then this is called vicchitti. Secondly, however, according to some authorities on the subject of rasa, vicchitti is the mixing of the emotions of jealousy and apathy towards the beloved. When the nāyaka is guilty of being unfaithful, then the nāyikā meets Him again at a meeting skilfully arranged by her sakhīs. However, in a mood of rejection towards her lover, the nāyikā expresses her anger to Him saying that she has dressed up in vain only upon the insistence of her sakhīs and that her dress and ornamentation is a superfluous burden. In this second way of understanding, this jealous and neglectful mood is known as vicchitti, breaking off.”

Vijaya, “What is vibhrama, puzzlement?”

Gosvāmī, “If the beguiled lover prepares to meet her beloved and on account of madana, extreme eagerness, she unknowingly wears her clothes, jewelleries and flowers in the wrong places, then this is known as vibhrama.”

Vijaya, “What is kilakiñcita?”

Gosvāmī, “Manifested at the time of meeting Kṛṣṇa, the ecstatic emotion of kilakiñcita displays seven ecstatic ornaments, the root of which is joyous elation. In kila-kiñcita, the nāyikā, in jubilation, exhibits a tendency to shrink away from the nāyaka, all the while turbulently displaying: pride, amorous yearning, smiling, feigned weeping, intolerance, fear and anger.”

Vijaya, “What is moṭṭāyita?”

Gosvāmī, “By remembering or receiving news of the nāyaka, the awaiting nāyikā feels loving emotion that quickly transforms into amorous desire. This is moṭṭāyita, the awakening of amorous desires by remembrance.”

Vijaya, “What is kuṭtāmita?”

Gosvāmī, “In intimate physical contact, during kissing or while He massages her breasts, although the nāyikā exults in her heart with ecstatic love upon giving the beloved pleasure, externally she exhibits anger as if in pain, because of modesty and shyness. This is called kuṭtāmita.”

Vijaya, “What is vivvoka?”

Gosvāmī, “An unsympathetic attitude shown by the nāyikā towards the nāyaka, brought about by His undesirable behaviour towards her, such as tardiness or insensitivity, is called vivvoka.”

Vijaya, “What is lalita?”

Gosvāmī, “The subtle charm created by graceful movements of her limbs and the dancing play of her eyebrows by the nāyikā to express the poignancy of amorous love, which lends great beauty to her youthfulness, is called lalita.”

Vijaya, “What is vikṛta?”

Gosvāmī, “Vikṛta is when the nāyikā tries to express feelings stemming from shyness, hurt, jealousy, anger, and the like through actions—such as moving to and fro—rather than through words.”

“In short, these are the twenty alaṅkāras, feminine moods, expressed by the young vraja-gopīs. However, according to the spiritual authorities, besides these twenty emotions there are two more: maugdhya, pretence of unknowing; and cakita, pretence of fear.”

Vijaya, “What is maugdhya?”

Gosvāmī, “When the nāyikā questions the nāyaka about matters of which she is actually fully aware whilst skilfully feigning ignorance of the very same matters, this is maugdhya, feigned unknowing.”

Vijaya, “What is cakita?”

Gosvāmī, “When, by pretence, the nāyikā apparently becomes extremely frightened in her lover’s presence whilst really not feeling fear at all, this is known as cakita, feigned fearfulness.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, by your grace, I have understood the different varieties of anubhāva-alaṅkāra, the ornamental moods of ecstasy of the vraja-gopīs, now kindly teach me the anubhāva-udbhāsvara, symptoms of consequent ecstasy manifested through the body.”

Gosvāmī, “When the powerful amorous emotions stirring the heart become manifest externally upon the body of the nāyikā, even after an attempt to restrain them, these ecstatic transformations are called udbhāsvara. Prominent examples in mādhuryarasa are the skirts and girdle loosen and fall away; the sari covering the upper torso slips down; the braids of hair become unsettled and untie; through restlessness, the body flexes and stretches; there is continuous yawning; the nostrils become flared as though finding perfume; singing; self-condemnation; and long sighs of yearning.”

Vijaya, “It would seem that all these symptoms of udbhāsvara could very well be included within moṭṭāyita and vilāsa, thus facilitating our understanding.”

Gosvāmī, “No, for in spite of their similarity, each the udbhāsvaras exemplifies a particular and powerful amorous emotion; hence, they are classified separately.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, now please explain the vācikaanubhāva, subordinate ecstatic emotions manifest by words.”

Gosvāmī, “Vācikaanubhāva is of twelve varieties: ālāpa, witty sweet talk; vilāpa, words of lamentation; saṁlāpa, conversing intimately; pralāpa, taking inconsistently; anulāpa, repeating topics; apalāpa, reinterpreting one’s words; sandeśa, messages; atideśa, identifying with another’s words; apadeśa, second meanings; upadeśa, words of instruction; nirdeśa, words of affirmation; and vyapadeśa, fraudulent words.”

Vijaya, “What is ālāpa?”

Gosvāmī, “Enriching speech with pleasing words of witty flattery is called ālāpa.”

Vijaya, “What is vilāpa?”

Gosvāmī, “Words of lamentation sorrowfully expressed are vilāpa.”

Vijaya, “What is saṁlāpa?”

Gosvāmī, “A conversation of pleasing intimacy between the nāyaka and the nāyikā is saṁlāpa.”

Vijaya, “What is pralāpa?”

Gosvāmī, “Useless, inconsistent and futile words spoken as though in delirium or madness are known as pralāpa.”

Vijaya, “What is anulāpa?”

Gosvāmī, “To repeat the same, perhaps adulatory, words many times is called anulāpa.”

Vijaya, “What is apalāpa?”

Gosvāmī, “Cleverly explaining one’s previous speech in a different light is apalāpa.”

Vijaya, “What is sandeśa?”

Gosvāmī, “Sending a message expressing one’s love to the lover in a faraway place is sandeśa.”

Vijaya, “What is atideśa?”

Gosvāmī, “To proudly assert such as, ‘His words are my words,’ is atideśa.”

Vijaya, “What is apadeśa?”

Gosvāmī, “Speaking in a roundabout manner instead of revealing one’s intention directly is known as apadeśa.”

Vijaya, “What is upadeśa?”

Gosvāmī, “Words of kind advice and instruction are called upadeśa.”

Vijaya, “What is nirdeśa?”

Gosvāmī, “To affirm and assert one’s identity, saying such as, ‘I am that person,’ is nirdeśa.”

Vijaya, “What is vyapadeśa?”

Gosvāmī, “Vyapadeśa is to speak words that misrepresent one’s true inner desire.”

“These symptoms of anubhāva are found in all the primary rasas, however they are seen to be especially prominent in churning the nectar of mādhuryarasa, and thus they should be clearly mentioned at this point.”

Vijaya, “Mahārāja, in the paradigm of rasa, why is anubhāva delineated as a separate principle?”

Gosvāmī, “The amalgamation of ālambana, basic causes of divine love, with uddīpana, items that stimulate divine love, produces bhāva within the heart. When this bhāva becomes manifest in the body, mind, and words, it is defined as anubhāva. In order to present a clear picture of the subject, anubhāva has to be described independently.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I am keen to hear about sattvikabhāva in mādhuryarasa.”

Gosvāmī, “In a general discussion on the principles of rasa, spiritual mellows, I have already mentioned the aṣṭa-sattvika-bhāva, the eight symptomatic physical transformations caused by ecstatic emotion, such as: sveda, profuse perspiration; stambha, being stunned; etc. The same aṣṭasattvikabhāva are present in mādhurya-rasa, though the causes of their expression are different here.”

Vijaya, “Kindly elucidate this difference.”

Gosvāmī, “In vrajalīlā, we find that the aṣṭa-sattvika-bhāva of stambha, being stunned, is caused by harṣa, delight; bhaya, fear; āścarya, wonder; viṣāda, grief; and amarṣa, indignation.

Sveda, profuse perspiration, is produced by haṛsa, humorous joy; bhaya, fear; and krodha, anger.

Romāñca, horripilation, comes from āścarya, bewonderment; harṣa, happiness; and bhaya, fearfulness.

Svarabhaṅga, loss of voice, appears by viṣāda, remorse; vismaya, astonishment; amarṣa, indignation; and bhaya, fear.

Kampa, trembling, is caused by bhaya, fear; haṛsa, joy; and amarṣa, indignation.

Vaivarṇya, pallor, is a result of viśada, lamentation; krodha, anger; and bhaya, fear.

Aśru, tearfulness, is aroused by haṛsa, humour; amarṣa, indignation; and viṣāda, lamentation.

Pralaya, devastation and near-death, results from sukha, excessive pleasure; and dukha, distress, sorrow.”

Vijaya, “Are these aṣṭa-sattvika-bhāvas manifested differently in mādhuryarasa?”

Gosvāmī, “Yes. Previously, when I discussed rasa, transcendental mellow, in general terms, I mentioned four stages that indicated the intensity of expression of the aṣṭa-sattvika-bhāvas. The two stages of the devotee trying to check the manifestation of the aṣṭa-sattvika-bhāvas were dhūmāyitā, the smoking stage; and jvalitā, the stage of being alight. The two further stages of intensity were dīpta, blazing; and uddīpta, greatly inflamed. However, in mādhurya-rasa, uddīpta, greatly inflamed, has a further progression of intensity known as sūddīpta, intensely inflamed.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, you are very kind to me; your answers are like soothing salve upon my parched heart. Kindly explain the nature of the vyabhicārī-bhāvas, transitory ecstasies, which arise wave-like from the ocean of sthāyi-bhāva, permanent ecstasy, in mādhurya-rasa.”

Gosvāmī, “Days earlier when speaking of rasa, I described to you the thirty-three vyabhicārī-bhāvas, which are also known as sañcāri-bhāvas, impelling ecstasies. They are such as nirveda, indifference; viṣāda, sorrow; and dainya, meekness. All of them exist in mādhurya-rasa except augrya, violence; and ālasya, indolence, laziness. However, there are some most wonderful special features in the vyabhicārī bhāvas of mādhurya-rasa.

Vijaya, “What are those most special features?”

Gosvāmī, “The sthāyi-bhāvas of sakhya and vātsalya rasas—the kṛṣṇaprema of Kṛṣṇa’s friends and elders—is also present in mādhurya-rasa, but now acts as a vyabhicārī or sañcāribhāva, transitory and impelling ecstasy. This is the first amazing feature.”

Vijaya, “What are the other wonderful features?”

Gosvāmī, “The thirty-three vyabhicārībhāva symptoms are not seen as direct aṅgas, branches, of the main trunk of mādhurya-rasa. Even, the vyabhicārī symptoms starting with the fifteenth, mṛti, death, and continuing to the thirty-third are not seen as aṅgas of this rasa. In mādhurya-rasa, they are counted as guṇas, attributes, of the rasa. Therefore, the conclusion is that mādhuryarasa is the guṇī, principle object and possessor, of the vyabhicārī symptoms, which are its guṇas, attributes.”

Vijaya, “How do the vyabhicārī-bhāvas arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Nirveda, indifference, is born out of anxiety and suffering, unpleasant argumentation, jealousy, melancholy, calamity, and offence.”

Vijaya, “How does dainya arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Dainya, meekness, humility, is caused by unhappiness, fear, and offence.”

Vijaya, “How does glāni arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Glāni, languor, is caused by anxiety, fatigue after labour, and amorous exertion.”

Vijaya, “How does śrama arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Śrama, fatigue, comes from journey, dancing, and the activity of love.”

Vijaya, “How does mada arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Mada, illusion, craziness, is a result of excessive ingestion of honey and such intoxicants, which leads to a loss of rational perception.”

Vijaya, “How does garva arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Garva, pride, is caused by good fortune, beauty, personal excellences, and obtaining the highest desired shelter, the object of one’s desire.”

Vijaya, “How does śaṅkā arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Śaṅkā, apprehension, is produced by stealing, offence, cruelty, and threats from others.”

Vijaya, “How does trāsa arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Trāsa, shock, arises from lightning, fearsome animals, or by terrible sudden sounds.”

Vijaya, “How does āvega arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Āvega, intense trepidation resulting in indecision, is caused by seeing and hearing the object of love or very pleasing things, or by seeing unpleasant sights and hearing disturbing words and news. The heart and mind become bemused by the upsurge of intense emotion.”

Vijaya, “How does unmāda arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Unmāda, madness, may be caused by mahānanda, excessive bliss, or by deeply distressing pangs of separation.”

Vijaya, “How does apasmṛti arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Apasmṛti, absent-mindedness, is the result of a broken heart deeply singed by sorrow, making the afflicted person see all things with indifference.”

Vijaya, “How does vyādhi arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Vyādhi, sickness, disease, is caused by extreme worry and anxiety, which bring fever and malady.”

Vijaya, “How does moha arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Moha, bewilderment, occurs when the heart is stupefied by excessive mirth, separation from the beloved, and grief.”

Vijaya, “How does mṛtyu arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Mṛtyu, death, is not present in mādhurya-rasa; only the desire, or even preparation for mṛtyu are seen.”

Vijaya, “How does ālasya arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Ālasya, laziness, is absent as such in mādhuryarasa. However, the feeling of being weak and incapable although one is actually strong and capable is called ālasya in mādhuryarasa. In the service of Kṛṣṇa there is no idleness; however, it may be seen in those of the non-devotional opposition camp.”

Vijaya, “How does jāḍya, inertia, arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Jāḍya, being stunned causing invalidity, is present in mādhurya-rasa and is evoked by seeing or hearing about one’s beloved, by seeing or hearing something that is most undesirable, or by the pain of separation.”

Vijaya, “How does vrīḍā, bashfulness, arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Vrīḍā or lajjā, shame, shyness, embarrassment, may be experienced in the first stages of a rendezvous with the beloved, or if one behaves inappropriately, or if one is praised, disparaged, or ignored.”

Vijaya, “How does avahitthā arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Avahitthā, the concealment of emotions, is sparked by duplicity, shyness, kindness, fear, and the effort to maintain one’s dignity.”

Vijaya, “How does smṛti arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Smṛti, remembrance, arises through seeing persons or objects similar to a previous emotional attachment, or by the cultivation of habit.”

Vijaya, “How does vitarka arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Vitarka, argumentation, comes from melancholy, doubt, and discontent.”

Vijaya, “How does cintā arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Cintā, anxiety, arises in the mind from not obtaining the desired object, or by expecting the worst, or by unfortunate happenings.”

Vijaya, “How does mati arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Mati, thoughtfulness, arises through evaluation and deliberation upon something.”

Vijaya, “How does dhṛti arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Dhṛti, is steadiness of the heart arising through the acquisition of the prized object and the absence of misfortune.”

Vijaya, “How does harṣa, jubilation, arise?”

Gosvāmī, “The exultation and pleasure one feels by seeing one’s desired object and winning the desired object is called haṛsa.”

Vijaya, “How does autsukya arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Autsukya, eagerness, comes from the ardent desire to see and attain one’s beloved.”

Vijaya, “In mādhuryarasa, does augrya arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Augrya, ferocity, violence, is not present in mādhuryarasa, as we have already pointed out.”

Vijaya, “How does amarṣa arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Amarṣa, indignation, is expressed because of feeling unjustly censured, disrespected, or insulted.”

Vijaya, “How does asūyā arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Asūyā, envy, may be ignited by another person’s good fortune, virtue, and excellence.”

Vijaya, “How does cāpalya arise?

Gosvāmī, “Cāpalya, fickleness or light-headedness, is caused by attachment or aversion.”

Vijaya, “How does nidrā arise?”

Gosvāmī, “Exhaustion and extreme fatigue produce nidrā, sleep.”

Vijaya, “How does supti arise?”

Gosvāmī, “In supti indicates deep sleep, within which there is an absence of dreams and reveries.”

Vijaya, “How does prabodha arise?”

Gosvāmī, “After awakening from slumber, one attains prabodha, perception.”

“So my dear Vijaya, this is the entire list of thirty-three vyabhicārī-bhāva expressions. One should also understand the four stages of bhāva-utpatti, source; bhāva-sandhi, conjunction; bhāvaśābalya, strengthening; and bhāva-śānti, pacification. The imminent appearance of bhāva is bhāva-utpatti. The conjunction of two or more bhāvas is bhāva-sandhi, which is subdivided into two: the joining of different bhāvas known as sa-rūpa-sandhi, and the friction of opposing bhāvas known as bhinnasandhi. The mixing of many different bhāvas is bhāvaśābalya; and the subsiding of a bhāva is called bhāvaśānti.”

From attentively listening to the dissertation of Śrīla Gosvāmī, Vijaya had now acquired a good knowledge of the particular manner in which vibhāva, anubhāva, sattvika bhāva, and vyabhicārī bhāva act as the sāmagrī, ingredients, of mādhuryarasa. His heart flooded with feelings of ecstatic joy; however, prema was still undefined and unclear. Understanding this, Vijaya fell in tears at his guru’s feet and said, “Gurudeva, kindly reveal to me why prema is still lacking and in an obscure stage within my heart.”

Śrīla Gosvāmī answered, “Tomorrow you will hear about the esoteric principles of prema. You certainly already know the sāmagrī that comprise prema, but prema itself has not yet fully blossomed in your heart. Actually, sthāyi-bhāva is prema—we have already discussed this topic in a general way. When you hear the specifics within the brilliant radiance of ujjvalamādhuryarasa, you will attain all-round perfection.”

With this Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī embraced Vijaya, who immediately offered prostrate obeisances, asked permission to leave, and returned to his lodgings deeply immersed in all that he had been blessed to hear.

Thus ends the thirty-fifth chapter of Jaiva-dharma, entitled:
Mādhurya-rasa, Part Five

Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Thirty Four
Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Thirty Six

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