Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Thirty Six
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Chapter Thirty-seven
Śṛṅgāra-rasa, The Perfection of the Conjugal Mellow, Part One

by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura
(translated by Śrī Sarvabhāvana Prabhu)

Vijaya was relishing the aspects of mādhuryabhāva quietly in the innermost recesses of his heart as he walked into the āśrama of his guru. After offering daṇḍavat praṇāma to Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī, he almost immediately began to enquire, “Revered Guruji, I have grasped the concepts of vibhāva, anubhāva, sattvika-bhāva, and vyabhicārībhāva. I have also understood the intrinsic nature of sthāyibhāva. Nonetheless, even after combining the first four sāmagrī-bhāvas with sthāyibhāva, I am unable to kindle rasa within my heart. Why is this so?”

Gosvāmī, “Vijaya, once you comprehend the svarūpa of śṛṅgārarasa, you will be able to awaken rasa in sthāyibhāva.”

Vijaya, “What is śṛṅgārarasa?”

Gosvāmī, “When mādhurya-rasa reaches the heights of extreme delectability, it is described as śṛṅgārarasa and is of two kinds: vipralambha, love in separation; and sambhoga, love in union and the enjoyment of pastimes together.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, kindly enlighten me about vipralambha.”

Gosvāmī, “Whether they are in each other’s company or separated, the preponderant bhāva that is stirred up in the hearts of the nāyaka and nāyikā when they are estranged from their amorous partner and the longed for mutual exchanges such as kissing and embracing is called vipralambha-bhāva. Vipralambha has the special quality of enhancing sambhoga and is also known as viraha, separation, and viyoga, absence.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, how can vipralambha cause augmentation of sambhoga?”

Gosvāmī, “Just as a coloured cloth looks gayer when an extra hue is added, vipralambha causes the revitalization of sambhoga-rasa, taking it to ever-new, sublimely relishable heights. Without vipralambha-bhāva, sambhoga-rasa cannot be fully nurtured.”

Vijaya, “Are there many variations of vipralambha?”

Gosvāmī, “Vipralambha is of four kinds: pūrvarāga, māna, prema-vaicittya, and pravāsa.”

Vijaya, “What is pūrvarāga?”

Gosvāmī, “The rati increasingly generated in the hearts of the nāyaka and nāyikā by darśana, seeing, and śravaṇa, hearing, of each other before their actual meeting takes place is called pūrvarāga.”

Vijaya, “What is darśana?”

Gosvāmī, “Darśana indicates the various ways the lovers may glimpse each other and is of three types: seeing Kṛṣṇa in person; seeing His picture; and seeing Him in a dream.”

Vijaya, “What is śravaṇa?

Gosvāmī, “Śravaṇa indicates the various ways the lovers may hear of each other and takes place through hearing stutis about the nāyaka; descriptions from another sakhī; messages from a dūtī; hearing a song praising the nāyaka; or other such means of information.”

Vijaya, “What are the causes of the rati thus generated?”

Gosvāmī, “Previously, I enumerated the causes of rati in general, they are abhiyoga, expression of one’s emotions to Kṛṣṇa; viṣaya, perception of Kṛṣṇa through the senses; sambandha, items in relationship to Kṛṣṇa; abhimāna, by asserted choice; tadīya-viśeṣa, Kṛṣṇa’s unique nature and qualities which act as catalysts; upamā, poetic comparison of Kṛṣṇa to other things; and svabhāva, one’s inner nature causing spontaneous love. These also apply as causes for the appearance of rati in pūrvarāga.”

Vijaya, “Is pūrvarāga awakened first in the vrajanāyaka, Kṛṣṇa, or the vraja-nāyikās, the gopīs?”

Gosvāmī, “This point has to be deeply considered. In mundane society, the ordinary woman is generally shyer than the ordinary man; therefore, the man generally takes the initiative in approaching the woman. However, since woman’s loving propensity is generally stronger, the vrajanāyikās feel the stirrings of pūrvarāga earlier. According to the bhaktiśāstras, pūrvarāga awakens first in the bhakta and Śrī Kṛṣṇa reciprocates accordingly, thus following in the footsteps of the devotee. The vrajagopīs are the most exalted amongst the pure devotees, therefore pūrvarāga initially emerges from them as the exquisitely beautiful first flush of rati.”

Vijaya, “What are the sañcāri-bhāvas in pūrvarāga?”

Gosvāmī, “Vyādhi, disease; śaṅkā, apprehension; asūyā, jealousy; śrama, lassitude; klama, fatigue; nirveda, indifference; autsukya, eagerness; dainya, meekness; cintā, contemplation; nidrā, swooning, sleep; prabodhana, offering oneself submissively; viṣāda, lamentation; jaḍatā, inertness; unmāda, craziness; moha, bewilderment; and mṛtyu, longing for death, are the preponderant sañcāri-bhāvas, aggressive disturbing ecstasies.”

Vijaya, “How many types of pūrvarāga are there?”

Gosvāmī, “Pūrvarāga is of three varieties: prauḍhā, fully matured; samañjasā, intermediate; and sādhāraṇa, general.”

Vijaya, “What is prauḍhā-pūrvarāga?”

Gosvāmī, “Pūrvarāga appearing in samartha-rati, boundless loving attachment, is called prauḍhā. On this platform, the nāyikā experiences various daśās, conditions, starting from lālasa, deep amorous yearning, leading all the way to mṛtyu, wishing for death. These daśās, ten in number, are experienced because of the acute and excessive upsurges of sañcāribhāva.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, I am interested to understand these ten daśās, conditions.”

Gosvāmī, “They have been discussed in the Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, Pūrvarāga 9, of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī:

lālasodvega jāgaryās tānavam jaḍimātra tu
vaiyagryaṁ vyādhir unmādo moho mātyur daśā daśa

“‘The ten conditions of prauḍhā-rāga are lālasa, yearning; udvega, anxiety; jāgaraṇa, sleeplessness; tānava, wilting of the body; jaḍatā, being stunned; vyagratā, impatience; vyādhi, disease; unmāda, madness; moha, trance; and mṛtyu, wishing for death.’

“In prauḍhā-rāga, these daśās become very deep and serious.”

Vijaya, “What is lālasa?”

Gosvāmī, “The intense greed for attaining one’s abhīṣṭa, desired object, is lālasa, yearning. It is accompanied by eagerness, restlessness, vertigo, and deep breathing.”

Vijaya, “What is udvega?”

Gosvāmī, “Anxiety and a paucity of peace of mind is udvega, which is symptomised by deep heavy breathing; restlessness; becoming motionless; worrisome thoughtfulness; tears; pallor; and perspiration.”

Vijaya, “What is jāgaraṇa?”

Gosvāmī, “Jāgaraṇa is sleeplessness and is symptomised by becoming motionless, also the senses dry up and there is a feeling of general weakness.”

Vijaya, “What is tānava?”

Gosvāmī, “Wasting away of the body is tānava and is accompanied by anorexia, bodily frailty, and delusional reeling of the mind. In describing this daśā, some authorities propose vilāpa, lamentation, instead of tānava.”

Vijaya, “What is jaḍatā?”

Gosvāmī, “Jaḍatā is a mood of withdrawn, stunned inertness wherein one has lost the capacity to discriminate between what is desirable or undesirable, respond cogently to enquiries, and even the ability to see and hear. Sudden incoherent outbursts, becoming stunned, deep sighing, and bewilderment attend upon this state.”

Vijaya, “What is vyagratā?”

Gosvāmī, “When the transformations caused by bhāva are held within the consciousness and not manifest externally then this is sobriety and gravity. Vyagratā destroys this sobriety, making gravity intolerable; thus appear symptoms such as criticism, humility, self-castigation, melancholy, impatience, and jealousy.”

Vijaya, “What is vyādhi?”

Gosvāmī, “Vyādhi is brought about by the failure to achieve one’s beloved, causing pallor and a feverish high temperature. Chills, shivering, desire, delusion, deeply disturbed breathing and sighs, disease, and unconsciousness attend this stage.”

Vijaya, “What is unmāda?”

Gosvāmī, “Deeply absorbed in thought of the beloved, the nāyikā sees the nāyaka everywhere and in everything, oblivious to normal circumstance. Attachment and also aversion for the beloved, jealousy, deep breathing, unblinking eyes, and extreme pangs of separation appear in concert with this stage.”

Vijaya, “What is moha?”

Gosvāmī, “When the mind is conflicted and acts in a contrary manner this is moha. Under moha, one becomes motionless, swoons, and falls down unconscious in a trance.”

Vijaya, “What is mṛtyu?”

Gosvāmī, “After the failure of every means to bring the beloved nāyaka to her loving service, the nāyikā, feeling unbearable excruciating heart pangs of separation, yearns and readies herself for death. With finality, she gives away all her belonging to her dearmost confidential sakhīs. In this state of devastation, all items that deepen remembrance of the nāyaka—the bumble bee, the fragrant gentle breezes, the moonlight, kadamba flowers, clouds, lighting, and peacocks—simply deepen her mood and she unburdens her heart to them.”

Vijaya, “Now kindly explain the second pūrvarāga—samañjasa-purva-rāga.”

Gosvāmī, “Samañjasa-purva-rāga possesses features very characteristic of samañjasārati. Experienced prior to meeting the nāyaka, immersed in this mood the nāyikā may gradually manifest ten daśās that are abhilāṣa, yearning; cintā, contemplation; smṛti, remembrance; guṇa-kīrtana, singing the qualities of the beloved; udvega, anxiousness; vilāpa, lamentation; unmāda, madness; vyādhi, illness; jaḍatā, inertness; and mṛytu, longing for death.”

Vijaya, “In this context, what is the meaning of abhilāṣa?”

Gosvāmī, “The intense yearning of the nāyikā for her lover’s company and the determined endeavours to fulfil that desire are called abhilāṣa in pūrvarāga. The anubhāvas that embellish the nāyikā are beautification with ornaments, make-up, etc.; searching for excuses to slip out and meet the nāyaka and exhibiting anurāga to the nāyaka.”

Vijaya, “Similarly, what is the meaning of cintā, in this context?”

Gosvāmī, “Here, the condition of cintā indicates the deep contemplation by the nāyikā upon the means by which she may meet the nāyaka. The nāyikā arranges a resting place in the kuñja, breathes deeply while sighing, and gazes seeing imaginary images as see awaits the nāyaka.”

Vijaya, “Here, what is meant by smṛti?”

Gosvāmī, “Remembering all details about the nāyaka—gleaned either from seeing or hearing about Him previously—is here referred to as smṛti, remembrance. Shivering, fatigue, pallor, tearfulness, internal absorption, sighing, and heavy breathing attend this condition.”

Vijaya, “Also, what is guṇa-kīrtana?”

Gosvāmī, “Praising the beauty and other excellences of the beloved nāyaka is called guṇakīrtana. The attendant anubhāvas include shivering, horripilation, and choking of the voice. The rest of the six conditions of samañjasā-pūrvarāga, namely: udvega, anxiety; vilāpa, lamentation; unmāda, madness; vyādhi, feverishness; jaḍatā, inertia; and mṛtyu, death, are the same as in samañjasā-rati.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, I have understood samañjasā-pūrvarāga, now kindly describe the third pūrvarāgasādhāraṇa-pūrvarāga.”

Gosvāmī, “This sādhāraṇa-pūrvarāga is very characteristic of sādhāraṇi-rati. Here six daśāsabhilāṣa, yearning; cintā, contemplation; smṛti, remembrance; guṇa-kīrtana, singing the qualities of the beloved; udvega, anxiousness; and vilāpa, lamentation—are expressed in a nascent way. As these conditions are not complicated, I need not describe them. In this pūrvarāga, kāma-lekha-patra, love-letters, flower-garlands, and such are secretly sent back and forth between the nāyikā and the nāyaka through their individual confidants.”

Vijaya, “What exactly is meant by kāma-lekha-patra?”

Gosvāmī, “Any missives expressing the awakening of loving attachment are called kāma-lekha-patra. They are of two kinds: nirakṣara, without use of the alphabet; and sākṣara, using the alphabet.”

Vijaya, “What are nirakṣara-kāma-lekha?”

Gosvāmī, “An example of a nirakṣara-kāma-lekha, message of love, would be an etching of a half-moon made by one’s nails upon a red leaf, without any further marks or letters.”

Vijaya, “What are sākṣara-kāma-lekha?”

Gosvāmī, “Sākṣara-kāma-lekha are heartfelt messages written and sent between the nāyaka and nāyikā, expressing their individual emotional condition in natural language. The writing is completed with coloured inks made from combinations of mountain minerals, musk, and juices obtained from red-coloured flowers. Large flower petals are used instead of paper, and fibres from the stems of lotuses are used as strings to hold the leaves together.”

Vijaya, “What are the developmental stages of pūrvarāga?”

Gosvāmī, “Some authorities opine that the sequence of amorous conditions in pūrvarāga begins first with nayanaprīti, seeing one’s object of love and conveying attachment with one’s eyes. This leads progressively to cintā, contemplation; āsakti, growing attachment; saṅkalpa, determined vow; nidrāccheda, sleeplessness; kṛśtā, growing weak and feeble; viṣaya-nivṛtti, apathy and detachment from all other concerns; lajjā-nāśa, overcoming and loss of shyness; unmāda, developing madness; mūrchā, swoon and loss consciousness; and finally, mṛtyu, preparing for death. Pūrvarāga is common to both the nāyikā and nāyaka, but appears first in the nāyikā and then the nāyaka.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, please describe māna.”

Gosvāmī, “Māna is that bhāva that prevents the nāyaka and nāyikā from expressing their mutual love and thus engaging in their cherished embracing, kissing, looking at each other, and sweet love talks, etc., even though they may be directly in one another’s company. Māna causes the appearance of the sañcāri-bhāvas such as despondent melancholy, doubtfulness, anger, restlessness, pride, intolerance, jealousy, concealment of one’s feelings, unease, and grave thoughtfulness.”

Vijaya, “Where does māna find āśrayā?”

Gosvāmī, “Praṇaya is the mainstay for māna. The rasa called māna is not churned up without the presence of praṇaya, but if māna should appear prior to praṇaya it becomes saṅkoca, hesitant and inhibited. Māna is of two kinds: sahetu, with cause; and nirhetu, without cause.”

Vijaya, “What is sahetu-māna?”

Gosvāmī, “When the nāyaka exhibits overtly an undue, heightened affection to a vipakṣa-nāyikā, consort of a rival camp, or a taṭasthānāyikā, consort of a marginal camp, then upon seeing this the pradhāna-nāyikā, foremost amorous heroine, is inflamed with īrṣā, jealousy. This īrṣā, when rooted in praṇaya, evokes sahetu-māna, which is māna with a specific cause.

“According to ancient preceptors of rasa-tattva, bhaya, fearfulness, cannot be produced without sneha; similarly, īrṣā cannot be produced without praṇaya, highlighting the fact that māna is simply a means of expressing conjugal love between the nāyaka and nāyikā. The nāyikā whose heart is flush with the deep affection of praṇaya, upon perceiving a greater degree of favour given by her beloved toward her competitor nāyikā, becomes intolerant and jealous. Once in Dvārakā, Kṛṣṇa narrated the incident to His queens of how He had given pārijāta flowers to Queen Rukmiṇī. Amongst the queens present, only the heart of Satyabhāmā was smitten with māna, not the others; Satyabhāmā was emotionally disturbed by this show of love to Rukmiṇī, who was of her opposite camp. This is an example of vipakṣa-vaiśiṣṭya-anubhāva, emotional reactions brought about by the rival camp member.”

Vijaya, “Are there different grades of vipakṣa-vaiśiṣṭya-anubhāva?”

Gosvāmī, “Yes, there are three: śruta, by hearing; anumati, by inference; and dṛṭṣa, by seeing.”

Vijaya, “What is śruta-vipakṣa-vaiśiṣṭya?”

Gosvāmī, “Śruta-vipakṣa-vaiśiṣṭya is evoked when the nāyikā hears from a priyasakhī, or from the parrot, Śuka, about the pastimes of the nāyaka with a nāyikā of a rival camp.”

Vijaya, “What is the second, anumita-vipakṣa-vaiśiṣṭya?”

Gosvāmī, “Anumita-vipakṣa-vaiśiṣṭya is of three kinds: bhogāṅka, gotra-skhalana, and svapna. Signs of amorous enjoyment upon the body of Kṛṣṇa and, similarly, marks of lovemaking upon the body of a vipakṣa-sakhī give rise to bhogāṅka, inference based upon signs of amorous enjoyment. The nāyaka mistakenly addressing the nāyikā with the name of a vipakṣa-sakhī is an example of gotra-skhalana, inference based upon calling out the wrong name. In gotra-skhalana, the nāyikā feels overwhelming grief to the point of wishing for mṛtyu. Svapna-anumati indicates that the nāyikā feels māna upon the basis of visions obtaining while dreaming that may show the nāyaka consorting with a vipakṣa-sakhī, or she may overhear the nāyaka talking of His love for a rival nāyikā-sakhī while they are lying together and he is speaking out while dreaming, or she may overhear a priya-narma-sakhā like Vidūṣaka describe while dreaming the pastimes of the nāyaka with a rival nāyikā.”

Vijaya, “What is the third, dṛṭṣa-vipakṣa-vaiśiṣṭya?”

Gosvāmī, “When the nāyikā directly sees Kṛṣṇa engaged in love-play with a competing vipakṣanāyikā, it is called dṛṭṣa-vipakṣa-vaiśiṣṭya, and greatly evokes māna.”

Vijaya, “Sahetu-māna is now clear, kindly describe nirhetu-māna.”

Gosvāmī, “Nirhetu-māna is generated when without any apparent cause the nāyikā construes an imaginary reason to enter māna, thus augmenting the deep affection of praṇaya. In fact, the natural transformation of praṇaya is into sahetu-māna, while the vilāsa, playful, aspect of praṇaya further produces the emotional grandeur called nirhetu-māna, which may be described as praṇaya-māna. The paṇḍitas of antiquity have compared the nature of prema with the crooked, capricious movements of a snake. This explains why māna–which serves to enhance the relationship between the nāyaka and nāyikā—is of the two kinds, sahetu and nirhetu, with and without reason. The prominent vyabhicārībhāva in this rasa is avahitthā, camouflaging one’s emotions.”

Vijaya, “In what way is nirhetu-māna abated?”

Gosvāmī, “Nirhetu-māna abates of its own accord, without extraneous expediencies. As soon as hāsya, humour, intrudes, nirhetu-māna dissipates of itself, its spell broken. However, the process of abating sahetu-māna is more elaborate and requires the nāyaka to perform variously: sāma, words of consolation and reconciliation; bheda, diplomatic words; kriyā, the taking of oaths and promises; dāna, gifts and presentations; nati, humility, such as bowing at the nāyikā’s feet; upekṣā, apparent detachment; rasāntara, provoking a change of rasa; and so on. The ebbing away of sahetumāna is signalled by the wiping away of the tears of the nāyikā by the nāyaka, by laughter, etc.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, what is meant here by sāma?”

Gosvāmī, “Sāma is the use of sweet, tender, pleasing words of consolation to comfort the priyā-nāyikā, beloved consort.”

Vijaya, “What is meant here by bheda?”

Gosvāmī, “Bheda is diplomatic remarks of two kinds: one is to show off one’s greatness through verbal nuances and with gestures, and the second is to instigate the sakhīs to censure the withdrawn nāyikā.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, what is meant here by dāna?”

Gosvāmī, “Pretending to present as gifts objects like one’s crown, jewelleries, and such is referred to as dāna.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, what is meant here by nati?”

Gosvāmī, “To fall pleadingly at the lover’s feet in humility is nati.”

Vijaya, “What is meant in this context by upekṣā?”

Gosvāmī, “When sāma and other approaches to attenuate the māna of the nāyikā are unsuccessful, taking a reticent attitude and perhaps even neglecting the nāyikā is called upekṣā, neglect. Others authorities are of the opinion that upekṣā means to speak in innuendoes and double entendre, intent on pacifying and humouring the nāyikā.”

Vijaya, “Kindly elucidate rasāntara?”

Gosvāmī, “Rasāntara means to provoke a change of rasa, usually quickly, by evoking fear, laughter, grave concern, or such like in the nāyikā’s mind. There are two kinds: yādṛcchika and buddhi-pūrvaka. Rasāntara, which occurs of its own accord without the direct involvement of the nāyaka, is yādṛcchika, for example, through natural causes and unexpected situations. Buddhi-pūrvaka-rasāntara is directly authored by the nāyaka, who uses His sharp wit and intelligence to exploit any situation to His advantage and thus convert the prevailing mood of māna of the nāyikā.”

Vijaya, “Are there any other means to placate māna?”

Gosvāmī, “Yes, a particular place, a specific time, and the sweet sound of the flute can mitigate the nāyikā’s māna, even without the help of sāma and so on. A laghu degree of māna is tackled with little effort; the madhyama intensity of māna needs careful and concerted application; and the durjaya, serious almost implacable, māna demands immense patience and resourcefulness for its remission. Some of the invectives used as adjectives and appellatives for Kṛṣṇa by the nāyikās embellished by māna are Vāma, unkind; Durlīlā-śiromaṇi, perpetrator of atrocities par excellence; Kapaṭa-rājā, king of deceivers; Kitava-rājā, prince of perfidy; Khala-śreṣṭha, master of guiles; Mahā-dhūrta, the champion of cunning; Kaṭhora, hard-hearted; Nirlajja, shameless; Atidurlalita, charmless, hard to please; Gopīkāmuka, one who lusts after gopīs; Ramaṇī-cora, kidnapper of women; Gopīdharma-nāśaka, enticer of saintly gopīs from their path of dharma; Gopī-sādhvī-viḍambaka, harasser of gopīs and chaste, saintly women; Kāmukeśvara, Lord of lusty desires; Gāḍhatimira, one who puts others in darkness; Śyāma, dark-hued one who puts others in illusion; Vastra-cora, cloth thief; Govardhana-upatyakā-taskara, thief of the chastity of the gopīs upon Govardhana Hill; and many more.”

Vijaya, “What is premavaicittya?”

Gosvāmī, “Immersed in intense love, the nāyikā experiences distressful feelings of separation from the beloved nāyaka, even while He is present. This is called prema-vaicittya. Total saturation in amorous feelings overwhelms the heart and mind of the nāyikā, thus projecting an anxiety of separation from the beloved. Even though nāyikā may actually be in the embrace of the nāyaka, she helplessly feels that He is not present, leading her to pine greatly for Him. This illusory perception of separation is known as vaicittya.”

Vijaya, “What are the features of pravāsa?”

Gosvāmī, “After nāyaka and nāyikā have spent time together, suddenly they are separated because one of them has left for a far place, or his or her individual home, or even because of rasāntara, a change of mellow; this obstruction between the nāyikā and the nāyaka is described as pravāsa. In pravāsa, which is a form of vipralambha, all the vyabhicārī-bhāva symptoms of śṛṅgāra-rasa are manifest with the exception of haṛsa, humour; garva, pride; mada, madness; and brīḍā, bashfulness. There are two types of pravāsa: buddhipūrvaka, intentional; and abuddhipūrvaka, unintentional.”

Vijaya, “Kindly clarify buddhi-pūrvaka pravāsa.”

Gosvāmī, “Travelling far away to expedite one’s responsibility and work is called buddhi-pūrvaka pravāsa. Giving pleasure, good instructions, and fulfilling their desires are obligations Kṛṣṇa feels to His devotees by His very nature, and this may cause Him to travel away from the nāyikā. Pravāsa is further divided into two: pravāsa, a short distance just out of sight; and sudūra-pravāsa, long distance travels. The latter has three categories: past, present, and future. In sudūra-pravāsa the nāyaka and nāyikā remain in touch with each other through sending messages.”

Vijaya, “Kindly elucidate abuddhi-pūrvaka pravāsa.”

Gosvāmī, “Unintentional pravāsa caused by forces outside one’s control is abuddhi-pūrvaka pravāsa. This pravāsa has many variations, such as that caused by the intervention of the Devas, natural forces and events, fate, one’s superiors, and so on. The aforesaid ten daśās are manifest in pravāsa, namely: lālasa, yearning; udvega, anxiety; jāgaraṇa, sleeplessness; tānava, wilting of the body; jaḍatā, being stunned; vyagratā, impatience; vyādhi, disease; unmāda, madness; moha, trance; and mṛtyu, wishing for death. When Kṛṣṇa leaves, travelling far away, these ten daśās manifest in the nāyikās, indicating his absence, and they also manifest in the nāyaka Himself. Each of the loving sentiments manifested by the ten daśās is indicative of the many variations and levels of prema, not all of which can be fully enumerated here. Some authorized ancient treatises on rasa propose that vipralambha related to karuna, mercy, requires independent description; however, since this rasa is another type of pravāsa a separate delineation is not essential.”

Vijaya deeply considered Śrīla Gosvāmī’s instructions on vipralambha. He thought, “Vipralambharasa is not svataḥ-siddha, self-perfected or independent; it is there solely to nurture sambhoga. For the conditioned jīva, the vipralambha mood of separation appears in a specific form, which favourably cultivates sambhogarasa and then dissipates once sambhoga is achieved. However, on the plane of transcendence, vipralambhabhāva will always have a residual presence in the eternal līlā; otherwise, the fullest variegatedness in the eternal līlā would not be possible.”


Thus ends the thirty-seventh chapter of Jaiva-dharma, entitled:
Śṛṅgāra-rasa, The Perfection of the Conjugal Mellow, Part One

Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Thirty Six
Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Thirty Eight

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