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Chapter Thirty-six
Mādhurya-rasa, Part Six

by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura
(translated by Śrī Sarvabhāvana Prabhu)

The next day, Vijaya arrived at the Rādhā-kānta temple punctually, his sprightly movements revealing an inner eagerness. He offered prostrate obeisances to the feet of Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī, who had detected the urgency of Vijaya and immediately began to speak upon the subject of sthāyibhāva.

Gosvāmī, “Mādhurya-rati is the sthāyibhāva of mādhurya-rasa.”

Vijaya, “What nourishes the appearance of mādhuryarati?”

Gosvāmī, “Mādhuryarati is nourished by abhiyoga, expression of one’s emotions to Kṛṣṇa; viṣaya,; sambandha, items in relationship to Kṛṣṇa; abhimāna, by asserted choice; tadīyaviśeṣa, Kṛṣṇa’s unique nature and qualities, which act as catalysts; upamā, poetic comparison of Kṛṣṇa to other things; and svabhāva, one’s innate nature of spontaneous love. The seven causes have been listed in order of ascending merit; hence, rati generated from svabhāva is rati par excellence.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, kindly elaborate upon these causes.”

Gosvāmī, “To openly express one’s bhāva is abhiyoga. One may express one’s feelings personally or another trusted person may do so on one’s behalf.”

Vijaya, “What is viṣaya?”

Gosvāmī, “Viṣaya means perception of the beloved Śrī Kṛṣṇa through the senses, of which there are five categories: śabda, sound; sparśa, touch; rūpa, form; rasa, taste; and gandha, the fragrance.”

Vijaya, “What is sambandha?”

Gosvāmī, “Sambandha indicates those items in relationship to Kṛṣṇa and is of four types: the kula, family; rūpa, beauty; guṇa, qualities; and the līlā, pastimes.”

Vijaya, “What is abhimāna?”

Gosvāmī, “Abhimāna is the adamant attitude one takes in demanding a particular object, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, in preference to all other beautiful and pleasing objects.”

Vijaya, “What is tadīyaviśeṣa?”

Gosvāmī, “Tadīyaviśeṣa indicates the intimate items of Kṛṣṇa that act as catalysts to deepen love for Him, for example: padāṅka, the sight of the impressions of Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet within Śrī Vṛndāvana-dhāma; goṣṭha, that Kṛṣṇa roams and pastures the cows only within the limits of Śrī Vṛndāvana-dhāma; and His tadīya priya-jana. Priya-jana, beloved persons, refers to those who permanently exchange deep loving emotions with Kṛṣṇa.”

Vijaya, “Now that is clear. Gurudeva, what is upamā?”

Gosvāmī, “When, through love, Kṛṣṇa is poetically compared to other beautiful and attractive objects that is upamā.”

Vijaya, “What is svabhāva?”

Gosvāmī, “Svabhāva indicates the innate nature of spontaneous love that manifests independently of external causes. It is of two types, nisarga and svarūpa.”

Vijaya, “What is nisarga?”

Gosvāmī, “Nisarga is an inner spiritual tendency that appears as a result of previous dedication to purified devotional practice. Lifetimes of hearing and chanting Kṛṣṇa’s beauty, qualities, and pastimes are aids to awakening nisarga, the inner devotional tendency. In other words, nisarga is the accumulation of devotional merit by determined adherence to spiritual discipline over many lifetimes. If there is a sudden surfacing of kṛṣṇaprema from devotional activities such as śravaṇa and kīrtana these devotional activities may be seen as the immediate cause, however nisarga-svabhāva, possibly cultivated over many lifetimes, is the actual efficient cause.”

Vijaya, “What is svarūpa?”

Gosvāmī, “Svarūpa indicates the causeless, self-perfect, beginningless, and innate devotional penchant that independently manifests its own perfection. There are three varieties of this spontaneous love: kṛṣṇa-niṣṭhā, attached to Kṛṣṇa; lalanāniṣṭhā, attached to the gopīs; and ubhayaniṣṭhā, attached to both Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs.

Kṛṣṇa-niṣṭha-svarūpa is unattainable by demoniac persons; it is available only to persons endowed with the divine devotional nature, such as the Devas. Spiritually enlightened devotees attain the self-manifest lalanā-niṣṭha-svarūpa. Even with minimal hearing about the beauty, qualities and pastimes of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs, lalanā-niṣṭha-svarūpa generates intense attraction for Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs. When both kṛṣṇa-niṣṭha and lalanā-niṣṭha-svarūpa are manifest by the svabhāva, innate nature, it is known as ubhaya-niṣṭha-svarūpa, attachment to both Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs.”

Vijaya, “Are all the aspects of mādhurya-rasa manifested by these seven causes: abhiyoga, expression of one’s emotions to Kṛṣṇa; viṣaya, perception of Kṛṣṇa through the senses; sambandha, items in relationship to Kṛṣṇa; abhimāna, by asserted choice; tadīya-viśeṣa, Kṛṣṇa’s unique nature and qualities, which act as catalysts; upamā, poetic comparison of Kṛṣṇa to other things; and svabhāva, one’s innate nature of spontaneous love.”

Gosvāmī, “The love of the vraja-gopīs for Kṛṣṇa is innate and self-manifest. Such devotion does not blossom because of abhiyoga, viṣaya, etc. However, in the progressive development of the many amorous pastimes these seven causes may stimulate and contribute dynamically. The rati attained by the pure liberated souls who are sādhana-siddha, perfected through sādhana, and nisarga-siddha, perfected through innate spontaneous love, is awakened by the seven causes starting with abhiyoga.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, it would be easier for me to understand this complex concept with the help of a few examples.”

Gosvāmī, “Mādhurya-rati as alluded to in this context is obtainable exclusively by rāgānuga-bhakti. This specific rati is beyond the reach of vaidhī-bhakti as long as such regulated practice is devoid of bhāva. On the level of sādhana-bhakti those devotees who develop lobha for the mood of service of the vraja-gopīs towards Kṛṣṇa gradually evoke mādhurya-rati through the first six causes, not svabhāva, and especially by taking the shelter of the priya-jana of Kṛṣṇa. By following these methods, as one becomes a sādhana-siddha, one spontaneously experiences the swell of exhilaration inherent in lalanāniṣṭha-svarūpa, being fixed in the mood of the gopīs.”

Vijaya, “How many types of mādhurya-rati are there?”

Gosvāmī, “There are three kinds: sādhāraṇi, ordinary, samañjasā, good, proper, balanced; and samarthā, boundless. Kubjā is the example of sādhāraṇi-rati. Kubjā desired her personal enjoyment with Kṛṣṇa and because this rati is rooted in the desire for selfish enjoyment, it is to be shunned as being of an inferior nature. The rati experienced by the queens of Dvārakā is samañjasā-rati, appropriate attachment, because it is evoked through the codes of marital conduct and tempered by social norms. The gopīs of Vraja have samarthā-rati, boundless attachment, which thus transcends all social norms and religiosity. It is not the case that samarthā is asamañjasā, improper behaviour; rather, according to absolute transcendental analysis, it is actually ati-samañjasā, harmonious and most proper in all respects.

Sādhāraṇi-rati, as displayed by Kubjā, may be compared to a valuable jewel; the samañjasā-rati of the Dvārakā queens is like a cintāmaṇi, touchstone gem; and the samarthā-rati of the gopīs is like the most precious Kaustubha gem—there is no more valuable object in all the three worlds.”

At this point, glistening rivulets of tears ran down Vijaya’s cheeks, and he spoke in a choked voice, “What a wonderful topic! Prabhu, I am eagerly waiting to hear the particulars of sādhāraṇi-rati.”

Gosvāmī, “Upon seeing Kṛṣṇa directly, sambhoga-icchā, the desire for personal amorous enjoyment, generates sādhāraṇirati, which is neither deep nor permanent. Since sādhāraṇi-rati lacks emotional depth and the aspiration to satisfy the senses of Kṛṣṇa, then sambhoga, personal enjoyment, is understood to be its prime motivation. However, when sambhoga-icchā subsides, then sādhāraṇi-rati progresses in emotional depth and thus aspires to serve the senses of Kṛṣṇa.”

Vijaya, “Kindly explain samañjasā-rati.”

Gosvāmī, “When, upon hearing the attractive qualities of Kṛṣṇa, a nāyikā yearns to become His wedded wife, then her intense love is known as samañjasā-rati. However, at times, in samañjasārati the desire for personal enjoyment arises and then the different bhāvas prompted by such cannot fully captivate Kṛṣṇa.”

Vijaya, “Kindly explain samarthā-rati.

Gosvāmī, “To different degrees, sambhogaicchā is an aspect of both sādhāraṇi-rati and samañjasā-rati. However, when sambhoga-icchā is completely absent and the lover only desires the enjoyment of the beloved that selfless emotion is called samarthā-rati.”

Vijaya, “Kindly clarify this matter.”

Gosvāmī, “The desire for enjoyment takes two forms: the desire for one’s own pleasure through one’s beloved; and the desire to offer pleasure to one’s beloved. The former may be called kāma, lust, because it seeks one’s own pleasure and satisfaction, whereas the latter, being exclusively devoted to enhancing the beloved’s pleasure, is prema. In sādhāraṇi-rati, the kāma is pronounced; and in samañjasā-rati, kāma is not strong. However, in samarthārati, the only the desire is that the beloved should enjoy, hence prema is the very nature of samarthā-rati.”

Vijaya, “In sambhoga, union, with the beloved Kṛṣṇa, the exhilaration from touching the beloved must surely flood the heart of the lover. How then can the desire for this pleasure be absent in samarthārati?”

Gosvāmī, “Indeed, this desire is incumbent, yet in the hearts of those steeped in samarthā-rati its presence is extremely weak. Moreover, when samarthā-rati gradually becomes more resolute and powerful, it embraces and overwhelms any trace of sambhoga-icchā and then samarthā-rati and sambhoga-icchā merge as one. Since this rati is samarthā, capable, of superseding all other personal desires and capable of subduing Kṛṣṇa, it is called samarthā-rati.

Vijaya, “What is the special excellence that crowns samarthā-rati?”

Gosvāmī, “Samartha-rati may manifest by contact with one or more of the seven causes starting with abhiyoga or alternatively appear from one’s svarūpa; however, as soon as samarthā-rati blossoms, all impediments to prema are dissipated from one’s consciousness. Then samarthā-rati shines with blinding intensity.”

Vijaya, “How is it possible that sambhoga-icchā merges with this spotless samarthā-rati and acquires the same character?”

Gosvāmī, “The samarthā-rati exhibited by the beautiful gopīs of Vraja is exclusively meant for the enjoyment of Kṛṣṇa. In sambhoga with Kṛṣṇa they certainly experience their own pleasure, however that happiness is only accepted to bring further pleasure to Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, when samarthā-rati absorbs sambhoga-icchā, the amalgamation is one of sublime beauty that never allows the independent assertion of sambhoga-icchā separate from the desire to satisfy Kṛṣṇa. In samañjasārati, on the other hand, love is sometimes covered by the desire for one’s own enjoyment.”

Vijaya, “How wonderful and enchanting! I yearn to hear the highest glories of samarthā-rati.

Gosvāmī, “When samarthā-rati matures, it acquires the sublime state known as mahā-bhāva, the pinnacle of the greatest spiritual ecstasy, which is sought by all liberated souls. This state is attained by the five types of pure devotees, each according to his eligibility.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, what are the gradations in this rati?”

Gosvāmī, “The Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, Sthāyi-bhāva-prakaraṇa 53, states:

syād ḍrḍhe ‘yaṁ ratiḥ premā prodyan snehaḥ kramād ayam
syān mānaḥ praṇayo rāgo‘nurāgo bhāva ity api

“‘Rati in mādhuryarasa is of one nature, and deepens when challenged through viruddha-bhāva, conflicting elements. It is then called prema. Prema gradually manifests its nectarean sweetness in increasing degrees as sneha, affection; māna, temperament; praṇaya, love; rāga, attachment; anurāga, further attachment; and bhāva, ecstasy.’”

Vijaya, “Is there a simple analogy to make this subject more easily understood?”

Gosvāmī, “Take, for example, sugar-cane; the gradations of prema in order resemble: the sugar-cane seed, the cane, juice, syrup, molasses, coarse sugar, sugar, and sugar candy. Similarly, rati culminates in bhāva by varying degrees and bhāva implies the ascension to mahā-bhāva.”

Vijaya, “Prema is applied as a general appellation to all the different gradations of bhāva, although there are also separate terms for the ascending levels. Why is it like that, Gurudeva?”

Gosvāmī, “Sneha, māna, praṇaya, rāga, anurāga, and bhāva are the six consecutive levels of increasing ecstasy in prema. Hence, the spiritual authorities refer to them all as prema. Kṛṣṇa nourishes and reciprocates scrupulously according to the nature and level of each devotee’s kṛṣṇa-prema.”

Vijaya, “What is the essential characteristic of prema?”

Gosvāmī, “In mādhurya-rasa, the youthful couple never lose their bond of loving emotion even though there might appear a cause for the destruction of the relationship, such as extended separation. This imperishable bond of love is called prema.”

Vijaya, “Are there different varieties of prema?”

Gosvāmī, “Prema is of three kinds: prauḍha, blossomed; madhya, intermediate and maturing; and manda, lesser and immature.”

Vijaya, “What is prauḍha-prema?”

Gosvāmī, “In prauḍha-prema, the lover’s heart is greatly anguished to think that her beloved may feel heart-pangs because of her forcibly delayed arrival at their place of rendezvous.”

Vijaya, “What is madhya-prema?”

Gosvāmī, “In madhya-prema, the lover’s heart is not anguished by thought of the beloved’s heart pangs.”

Vijaya, “What is manda-prema?”

Gosvāmī, “In mandaprema, the lover is sometimes unmindful of the wonders of the beloved according to particular times and circumstances. Love of prolonged intimacy that fails to evoke sacrifice or respect because the lovers are already most familiar with each other, is called manda-prema. Although in this case the prema is manda, mild, by its pure and intense nature there is still no trace of neglect or disrespect towards the beloved.

“Now, Vijaya, I would like to formulate the concepts of these three levels of prema in simpler terms. When the lover cannot tolerate viśleṣa, the painful feelings of separation, in the beloved, that level of prema is called prauḍhā-prema. When the lover can tolerate the viśleṣa of the beloved, that level of prema is called madhyā-prema. When the lover is sometimes forgetful of the viśleṣa of the beloved, that level of prema is called manda-prema.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, I have properly understood your explanations of prema. Kindly tell me more about sneha, transcendental ecstatic loving affection.”

Gosvāmī, “When prema enters perfection and brilliantly illumines the citta, consciousness, it is known as sneha. Here the citta has attained the viṣaya of cit-prema. Therefore, sneha acquires a brilliant form that melts the heart with bhāva. A marginal symptom of sneha is that the lover is never satiated, even by continuous association with the beloved.”

Vijaya, “Are there different levels of sneha?”

Gosvāmī, “The heart of the kaniṣṭha-snehi, beginner in sneha, melts upon physical contact with the beloved. The heart of the madhyama-snehi, intermediate in sneha, melts immediately upon seeing the beloved, and the heart of the śreṣṭhasnehi, highest in sneha, melts simply when the beloved is mentioned.”

Vijaya, “Are there different types of sneha?”

Gosvāmī, “In fact sneha is of two types: ghṛtasneha, love like ghee; and madhusneha, love like honey.”

Vijaya, “What is ghṛtasneha?”

Gosvāmī, “The sneha which adds ādara, intense affectionate honour and adoration, to prema is called ghṛta-sneha. Ghṛta, clarified butter, is not intrinsically sweet as is honey; however, it becomes very delectable when sugar, honey, or other ingredients are added. Similarly, ghṛta-sneha is extremely relishable when specific bhāvas are mixed with it as condiments. Ghṛta-sneha is cooling by nature and when ādara is repeatedly added it thickens and becomes more concentrated just like clarified butter or butter fat and so acquires the same name.”

Vijaya, “What exactly is ādara?”

Gosvāmī, “Ādara, to give honour and adoration, sprouts from gaurava, respect, which makes them interdependent. Although they are present in rati and bhāva, etc., in sneha they find full expression. Thus, they are mentioned in this context.”

Vijaya, “What exactly is gaurava?”

Gosvāmī, “When someone accepts a trusted person as guru, gaurava means the respectful emotion that manifests from such an attitude. It is also called sambhrama, awed respect, which is synonymous with ādara. Thus, when ādara, honour, is mentioned, gaurava, respect, is automatically included.”

Vijaya, “Kindly explain madhu-sneha.”

Gosvāmī, “When sneha is infused with the feeling that the lover madīyatva, belongs—i.e. ‘He is mine’—and is thus the property of the beloved, then this transcendental affection is known as madhusneha. This type of sneha is excessively nectarean and the melting pot of many rasas. Being independently most sweet and passionate, madhusneha has the properties to cause loving inebriation and is thus heating. Therefore, having the characteristics of honey, it is called madhusneha.”

Vijaya, “What is the purport of madīyatva, to belong?”

Gosvāmī, “Rati is displayed through two specific bhāvas: firstly, ‘I belong to my beloved’, and secondly, ‘My beloved belongs to me’. In the first of these two, which is ghṛta-sneha, bhāva-rati, ecstatic attachment, is expressed by the nāyikā when she thinks predominantly, ‘I belong to my beloved.’ In madhu-sneha, the bhāvarati of the nāyikā is expressed predominantly as, ‘He belongs to me.’ In relationship to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the sneha of Śrī Candrāvalī is ghṛtasneha and the sneha of Śrīmatī Rādhikā is madhu-sneha.”

Upon mention of Śrīmatī Rādhikā’s name, Vijaya quickly offered prostrate obeisances to the lotus feet of his guru. He then sat down and continued with his questions.

Vijaya, “I would like to understand the complexities of māna.”

Gosvāmī, “When sneha is refined to the heights of excellence it acquires a new texture of sweetness, characterized by a firmer, less forgiving attitude, mixed with guile and craftiness towards the lover; then, it is called māna.”

Vijaya, “How many kinds of māna are there?”

Gosvāmī, “Māna is of two kinds: udātta and lalitā.”

Vijaya, “What is udāttamāna?”

Gosvāmī, “Udāttamāna is further subdivided into two: the first is a dākṣiṇyabhāva, generous submissive disposition of mind, straightforward, open and free of diplomacy; the second is most diplomatic wherein the nāyikā masks her feelings under a most grave exterior that mildly exhibits the vāmya-bhāva, contrary mood. Udāttamāna is refined only from ghṛtasneha.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I feel more inclined to lalitā-māna, though I cannot explain why.”

Gosvāmī, “Lalitāmāna is also of two kinds: kauṭilya-lalitā-māna, diplomatic and guileful; and narmalalitāmāna, jestful and witty. Māna provoked by guileful intentions of the heart is called kauṭilyamāna, whereas narma-lalitā-māna is full of sportive pleasantries and sprightly humour. Both varieties of lalitāmāna are refined from madhusneha.”

Vijaya, “What is praṇaya?”

Gosvāmī, “When māna is reinforced with viśrambha, firm faith and trust, that cultivates the mentality of equality and oneness of heart between beloved and lover, it is called praṇayaprema.”

Vijaya, “What does viśrambha mean in this context?”

Gosvāmī, “Viśrambha is intimate confidence and trust and is the innate nature of praṇaya, being of two types: maitrī and sakhya. However, viśrambha is not the nimittakāraṇa, instrumental cause, of praṇaya, but its upādāna-kāraṇa, ingredient cause.”

Vijaya, “What is maitrī-viśrambha?”

Gosvāmī, “Viśrambha mixed with vinaya, meekness and courtesy, is called maitrīviśrambha.”

Vijaya, “What is sakhyaviśrambha?”

Gosvāmī, “Sakhyaviśrambha is implicit trust free from all awe and fear and permeated with the confidence that one’s beloved is controlled by one’s love.”

Vijaya, “Please clearly explain how praṇaya, sneha, and māna are related to each other.”

Gosvāmī, “In some instances, praṇaya arises from sneha and then produces māna. In other circumstances, māna arises from sneha and then produces praṇaya. So we see that according to the situation, māna and praṇaya are interchangeably related as one another’s cause and effect. For this reason, viśrambha has been delineated separately. The manifestation of maitra and sakhya is caused by the difference in moods between udāttamāna and lalitāmāna, respectively. Furthermore, when manifesting on the basis of praṇaya, maitra becomes sumaitra and sakhya becomes susakhya; the prefix ‘su’ indicates especially relishable.”

Vijaya, “What is the nature of rāga?”

Gosvāmī, “When praṇaya reaches its acme wherein even excessive grief is pleasurable, at this point, rāga is born.”

Vijaya, “How many varieties of rāga are there?”

Gosvāmī, “There are two varieties: nīlimā and raktimā.”

Vijaya, “How many kinds nīlimā-rāga are there?”

Gosvāmī, “Nīlimā-rāga is further divided into nīlīrāga and śyāmarāga.”

Vijaya, “What is the nature of nīlī-rāga?”

Gosvāmī, “Rāga that by nature does not diminish and overtly displays itself externally, unilaterally cloaking all other corollary bhāvas, is known as nīlīrāga. This rāga is seen in the relationship between Śrī Candrāvalī and Śrī Kṛṣṇa.”

Vijaya, “What is the nature of śyāmarāga?”

Gosvāmī, “Śyāma-rāga is more timorous than nīlīrāga and is exhibited through auṣādhaseka, the dispensing of medicine, hot fomentations and nursing, and so on. This rāga is born from nīlīrāga, but only after a long time.”

Vijaya, “How many kinds of raktimārāga are there?”

Gosvāmī, “Raktimā-rāga is also of two varieties: kusumbha-rāga and mañjiṣṭhā-sambhava-rāga.”

Vijaya, “What is the nature of kusumbharāga?”

Gosvāmī, “Rāga that tenaciously adheres to the heart and swiftly escalates, acting as a catalyst for releasing the brilliance of other rāgas as well, is called kusumbharāga. In particular nāyikās, kusumbha-rāga becomes steady and fixed, however in other nāyikās this rāga mixes with mañjiṣṭhārāga. In this case, kusumbharāga occasionally wanes in the heart of the nāyikā.”

Vijaya, “What is the nature of mañjiṣṭhā-rāga?”

Gosvāmī, “Unlike kusumbha-rāga, mañjiṣṭhā-rāga never wanes but remains permanently steady, not requiring extraneous stimuli. Mañjiṣṭhā-rāga is independently self-manifest and eternally perfect. This crowning rāga is shared between Śrī Rādhā and Śrī Kṛṣṇa and heightens continuously. The conclusion is that ghṛta-sneha, udātta-māna, maitra-viśrambha, sumaitra-praṇaya, and nīlimarāga embellish the natures of Candrāvalī and the queens of Dvārakā headed by Rukmiṇī; whereas, the progressively superior ragas—madhu-sneha, lalitā-māna, sakhya-viśrambha, susakhya-praṇaya, and raktimārāga—to their highest intensity are found only in Śrīmatī Rādhikā. Also in Satyabhāmā, a Queen of Dvārakā, these symptoms of a left-wing gopī are occasionally displayed.

“As previously discussed, all these different bhāvas reside splendidly in the beautiful gopīs of Vṛndāvana, engendering factiousness and thus polarizing them into the camps of friends, neutrals, and enemies that we have already mentioned. Learned, realized devotees through their transcendental wisdom perceive the innate variations and combinations of the bhāvāntara, diverse emotions, that manifest the great emotional variety of the unlimited līlās. At this point in our talks, the resultant unrestricted variegatedness of bhāva cannot be fully delved into.”

Vijaya, “Which bhāvas are addressed by the term bhāvāntara?”

Gosvāmī, “Sthāyi-bhāva in mādhuryarasa, the thirty-three vyabhicārībhāvas, and the seven bhāvas beginning with hāsya add up to forty-one bhāvas. This total is indicated by the term bhāvāntara.”

Vijaya, “Rāga is now clear to me. Kindly describe anurāga.”

Gosvāmī, “When rāga soars to heights of new, ever-fresh bhāva—that allows the nāyikā to perceive the nāyaka at every moment as novel and perennially unique—then rāga has been transformed into anurāga.”

Vijaya, “What are the glorious wonders of anurāga?”

Gosvāmī, “Through loving exchanges, this sublime prema incessantly ascends and makes the nāyaka and nāyikā more and more subjugated to each other. Anurāga wonderfully creates prema-vaicittya, ecstatic transformations of the heart on account of deeply intense loving attachment and often manifests ecstatic desires such as the longing to be born even as an inert object as long as that birth be within Vṛndāvana-dhāma. Furthermore, in feelings of vipralambha, separation, from the nāyaka, anurāga evokes in the nāyikā a sphūrti, mystical perception, of Kṛṣṇa’s presence and thus great ecstasy.”

Vijaya, “Grasping the concept of vaśī-bhāva, the nāyaka and nāyikā bringing each other under control, and understanding the concept of wanting to be born as trees and other inanimate objects in Vṛndāvana-dhāma are easier ideas to understand. However, Prabhu, kindly elucidate the more difficult premavaicittya.”

Gosvāmī, “Prema-vaicittya describes the abundance of ecstatic loving emotion that spontaneously brings about rapturous feelings such as a sense of grief caused by a fear of separation from the beloved, even though the beloved is still actually present. You will learn more about this later as premavaicittya is included in vipralambha.”

Vijaya, “Very well, I now beg permission to hear about mahā-bhāva, the acme of prema.”

Gosvāmī, “Vijaya, my boy, in the realm of vrajarasa my comprehension is rather limited. What is the use of my insignificant realization next to the lofty tattva of mahābhāva? However, whatever I have learnt from the instructions of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and Śrīla Vakreśvara Paṇḍita by their mercy I will deliver to you. All these conclusions are strictly in line with Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī and you can perceive them best by simply depending upon his grace.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, I am an extremely lowly being and an ignorant enquirer. Kindly formulate the esoteric essence of mahā-bhāva-tattva in a manner that is easily comprehensible for me.”

Gosvāmī, “Śrīmatī Rādhikā is the āśrayā of anurāga, and correspondingly Kṛṣṇa is the viṣaya of anurāga. Vrajendra-nandana Kṛṣṇa, the son of Mahārāja Nanda, as the icon of śṛṅgāra-rasa is the ultimate epitome of viṣayatattva and Śrī Rādhikā is the ultimate epitome of āśrayātattva. Her anurāga is her sthāyi-bhāva. When Śrī Rādhā’s anurāga escalates to its pinnacle and manifests itself with sattvika-bhāvas that are sūddīpta, brilliantly shining, then at this height, anurāga culminates in mahābhāva.”

Vijaya, “Oh, how wonderful is mahābhāva! O mahābhāva, the superexcellent mahābhāva! I am so blessed that I am able to perceive even slightly its grandeur. It is the crown jewel of all bhāva. Prabhu, kindly satiate my ears if you will—please give some examples of mahā-bhāva.

Gosvāmī, “The Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, Sthāyi-bhāva prakaraṇa 155, states:

rādhāyā bhāvataś ca citta-jatunī svedair vilāpya kramād
yuñjann adri-nikuñjara-pate nirdhūta-bheda-bhramam
citrāya svayam anvarañjayad iha brahmāṇḍa-harmyodare
bhūyobhir nava-rāga-hiṅgula-bharaiḥ śṛṅgāra-karuḥ kṛtī

“‘Vṛndā Devī says to Kṛṣṇa, “O enmaddened King of the Elephants who sports in the beautiful groves and bowers upon the hilly slopes of Govardhana! In your eternal unmanifest pastimes, the hearts of Rādhikā and Yourself melt in the radiance of the mahā-sattvika transformations caused by unfathomable feelings of inconsolable separation. Thus, the piteous fiery lamentation of separation has melted the shellac that is Your hearts, mixing and making them as one. In order to re-enact the same ecstatic pastimes within the mansion of Brahmā, the material world, that same artist, śṛṅgārarasa, has taken this shellac and mixed it with the red vermilion of your ever-fresh rāga, and so now your unmanifest pastimes in the form of endless variegated bhāvas are manifest upon the canvas of Śrī Vṛndāvana-dhāma by the arrangement of Yogamāyā.”

Vijaya, “In whom does mahā-bhāva repose?”

Gosvāmī, “Mahā-bhāva is unattainable by Kṛṣṇa’s queens in Dvārakā; it is manifest exclusively in the gopīs of Vraja, headed by Śrī Rādhā.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, why is that?”

Gosvāmī, “In a relationship bound by nuptial vows, when loving emotions are ruled by svakīyabhāva, the conjugal identities of husband and wife, rati is samañjasā, balanced, which befits the vows of such a relationship. However, such a balanced relationship cannot accommodate the continuous ecstatic emotional exchanges that continually reach new heights in the uncharted emotional realms of mahābhāva. In Vraja, some ladies do harbour slight fancies of svakīyabhāva in their hearts, but their pre-eminent bhāva is pārakiya. In that mood, rati is samarthā, boundless. Thus, when samarthā-rati peaks, it is transformed into mahābhāva.”

Vijaya, “Are there variations within mahābhāva?”

Gosvāmī, “Mahābhāva is the crystallized form of the most sublime nectar that transforms all bhāvas coming in touch with it, infusing them with the innate nature of itself, mahā-bhāva. Mahā-bhāva appears in two variations: rūḍha and adhirūḍha.”

Vijaya, “What is rūḍha-mahā-bhāva?”

Gosvāmī, “In rūḍha-mahā-bhāva all the sattvikabhāvas shine at the level of uddīpta, ablaze. Each bhāva is expressed through anubhāvas.”

Vijaya, “What are the anubhāvas in rūḍha-mahā-bhāva?”

Gosvāmī, “The anubhāvas of rūḍha-mahā-bhāva are as follows: impatience flares up even by the loss of a moment’s association with the beloved; emotions are churned up in the hearts of those present just as witnesses; perception that a kalpa is but a moment; anxiety that Kṛṣṇa may suffer, although there is no apparent reason to think so; the self and the world fade into oblivion; and moments are drawn out to seem like ages. Some of these anubhāvas are experienced in sambhoga and others in vipralambha.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I beg you to elucidate, ‘Impatience flares up even by the loss of a moment’s association with the beloved.’”

Gosvāmī, “This anubhāva is caused by vaicittya-vipralambha, transformations of the mind through separation, which cause the feeling of vipralambha even in sambhoga. In this ecstatic condition even a moment’s separation of sight from the beloved is felt as being unbearable.

“When the gopīs were visiting Kurukṣetra, they once again saw Kṛṣṇa after a long interval. Yearning to feast their eyes upon their beloved, they felt that their eyelids were an unbearable burden because, upon blinking, the eyelids blocked their vision of Kṛṣṇa for fractions of a second. Thus, the gopīs, in their anger and frustration, cursed providence, Lord Brahmā, for creating eyelids. To not see Kṛṣṇa for even the blinking of an eye was a feeling Kṛṣṇa’s beloved gopīs could not tolerate.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, kindly explain, ‘Emotions are churned up in the hearts of those present just as witnesses.’”

Gosvāmī, “This anubhāva is exemplified by the kings, noblemen, and queens present at Kurukṣetra who were witnessing the gopīs expressions of bhāva upon meeting their beloved Kṛṣṇa. Their hearts were churned up and agitated with divine emotions.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I humbly request you to elucidate, ‘A kalpa seems but a moment.’”

Gosvāmī, “This anubhāva is described best by the feelings of the gopīs during the night of the rāsalīlā dance, which by Kṛṣṇa’s yogamāyā potency was expanded to be as long as a kalpa—a night upon planet of Lord Brahmā. Nevertheless, to the gopīs the rāsa-līlā seemed to end too quickly, in less than even a moment.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I ask you to explain, ‘Anxiety that Kṛṣṇa may suffer, although there is no apparent reason to think so.’”

Gosvāmī, “This anubhāva is aptly depicted in the Śrīmad Bhagavatam, 10.31.19:

yat te sujāta-caraṇāmburuhaṁ staneṣu
bhītāḥ śanaiḥ priya dadhīmahi karkaśeṣu
tenāṭavīm aṭasi tad vyathate na kiṁ svit
kūrpādibhir bhramati dhīr bhavad-āyuṣāṁ naḥ

“‘O dearly beloved! Your lotus feet are so soft that we place them very gently upon our hard breasts, fearing that Your feet will be hurt. Our life rests only in You. Our minds, therefore, are filled with anxiety that Your tender feet might be wounded by pebbles as You roam about on the forest paths.’

“Here, without true cause, the gopīs deeply lament that when they place Kṛṣṇa’s lotus-petal-soft feet upon their hard breasts, the delicate soles of His lotus feet may be hurt.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, kindly clarify, ‘The self and world fade into oblivion.’”

Gosvāmī, “This anubhāva exemplifies that, on the one hand, delusion cannot enter the lover’s consciousness because of incessant remembrance of Kṛṣṇa, but, on the other hand, on account of ecstatic love, the lover’s consciousness may enter an internal state wherein there is total oblivion of the body and external reality.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I request you to illuminate, ‘Moments are drawn out to seem like ages.’”

Gosvāmī, “This anubhāva is kṣaṇakalpatā, which Kṛṣṇa describes in His conversation with Uddhava, ‘When I was in Vṛndāvana in the company of the gopīs of Vraja, their nights were over in a moment, but when I left, their nights seemed as endless as a kalpa.’”

Vijaya, “I have understood rūḍhabhāva. Kindly explain in detail the bhāva par excellence, adhirūḍhabhāva.”

Gosvāmī, “When the anubhāvas of rūḍhabhāva reach their climax and sparkle with extraordinary splendour, then the loving emotions enter the realm of adhirūḍhabhāva.”

Vijaya, “How many kinds of adhirūḍha-bhāva are there?”

Gosvāmī, “This wonderful bhāva is of two hues: modana and mādana.”

Vijaya, “What is modana-adhirūḍha-bhāva?”

Gosvāmī, “In mahābhāva, when the entire spectrum of sattvikabhāvas being exchanged between the nāyikā and nāyaka, Śrī Rādhā and Śrī Kṛṣṇa, scintillates exceptionally, higher than even the uddīpta, blazing, level, then this is called modana-adhirūḍha-bhāva. In modana-adhirūḍha-bhāva, both Śrīmatī Rādhikā and Śrī Kṛṣṇa are overcome with anxiety and discontent. Furthermore, in modana-adhirūḍha-bhāva, the love of Śrīmatī Rādhikā touches heights of ecstasy unknown to all the other gopīs.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I am eager to learn about some particulars of modana-adhirūḍha-bhāva—for instance, in whom does this bhāva reside?”

Gosvāmī, “Modana-bhāva is only present in the yūtha of Śrīmatī Rādhikā, nowhere else. Modana is the favourite pleasure arena of the hlādinī-śakti. At a certain stage, in virahadaśā, the anguish of separation, modana converts to mohana and then, as viraha-daśā becomes all-encompassing, all the magnificent sattvikabhāvas radiate at the level of sūddīpta, greatest brilliance.”

Vijaya, “What are the anubhāvas in the state of mohana?”

Gosvāmī, “Some of the symptoms are that Śrī Kṛṣṇa swoons unconscious in the embrace of a nāyikā who is not Śrīmatī Rādhikā. For example, this may occur in Dvārakā when He is in the embrace of Queen Rukmiṇī and remembers His amorous pastimes with Śrīmatī Rādhikā in the leafy bowers of Vṛndāvana. Śrīmatī Rādhikā accepts the severest hardship and grief in the pain of separation and yet wishes only for Kṛṣṇa to be happy. Yearning for union with Kṛṣṇa brings such a pang of separation to the heart of Śrīmatī Rādhikā that the entire material creation and even Vaikuṇṭha are plunged into the deepest sorrow. Even birds and beasts shed tears as Śrīmatī Rādhikā expresses to her intimate sakhīs that her heart pangs may cause Her death, and if this were to happen then her body should be covered with earth so that the burial spot may bring consolation to her beloved, Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Only Śrīmatī Rādhikā, the Queen of Vṛndāvana, is embellished with the infinite depth of these anubhāvas of mohana-adhirūḍha-bhāva. Furthermore, the super-excellent splendour of the sañcāri-bhāvas of mohanaadhirūḍhabhāva is fully manifested in Śrīmatī Rādhikā alone.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, if you consider it appropriate, kindly elucidate the divya-unmāda-lakṣaṇa, symptoms of spiritual madness, you have just briefly described.”

Gosvāmī, “When mohanaadhirūḍhabhāva enters its zenith an amazing and inexplicable condition of the mind known as divyaunmāda is created, which is a mental state very similar to bhrama, delusion. Divyaunmāda is of many different varieties, two of which are udghūrṇā and citrajalpa.”

Vijaya, “What is udghūrṇā?”

Gosvāmī, “When many astonishing but helpless endeavours are made in divya-unmāda, this is known as udghūrṇā, ecstatic unsteadiness and incoherence. Śrīmatī Rādhikā was in the grips of udghūrṇā after Kṛṣṇa had left for Mathurā, Her mind benumbed by the pangs of separation. At times, she thought that Kṛṣṇa was on His way back, thus she hurriedly arranged everything in the kuñja. Sometimes, like an outraged wife, she chastised the black clouds for infidelity, mistaking them for Kṛṣṇa. Sometimes, in the darkness of night, she secretly hurried to an imagined rendezvous with Kṛṣṇa.”

Vijaya, “Kindly explain citrajalpa.”

Gosvāmī, “When the nāyikā meets the intimate friend of the nāyaka, feeling the acute pangs of separation, she unburdens her love-laden heart by discussing many confidential matters that may go through a whole range of emotions from garva, awed respect towards the beloved, to utkaṇṭha, excessive eagerness for union. Such a conversation is termed citrajalpa, varieties of mad emotional talks.”

Vijaya, “What are the variations in citra-jalpa?”

Gosvāmī, “The ten limbs of citra-jalpa have been delineated in the Bhramaragītā section of the tenth canto of the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, they are prajalpa, parijalpa, vijalpa, ujjalpa, sañjalpa, avajalpa, abhijalpa, ājalpa, pratijalpa, and sujalpa.”

Vijaya, “Kindly explain prajalpa.”

Gosvāmī, “On account of the innumerable and wonderful inflections in the amazing range of bhāvas, citra-jalpa is very personal and difficult to fully describe, but some of its aspects can be expressed.

“To narrate insultingly with gesticulations induced by feelings of malice, envy, and pride, about the tactless inappropriate behaviour of one’s beloved is defined as prajalpa.”

Vijaya, “What is parijalpita?”

Gosvāmī, “In the madness of love, to expertly point out the personal faults of one’s beloved, Kṛṣṇa—such as cruelty, treachery, fickleness, heartlessness, and ingratitude—is called parijalpita.”

Vijaya, “What is vijalpa?”

Gosvāmī, “Within Her heart the nāyikā feels deep love for Kṛṣṇa, but externally she uses harsh and cutting remarks towards Him. These are symptoms of vijalpa.”

Vijaya, “What is ujjalpa?”

Gosvāmī, “When with offended pride and feeling both jealousy and respect, the nāyikā angrily slanders Kṛṣṇa for his cheating ways in the art of love, it is known as ujjalpa.”

Vijaya, “What is sañjalpa?”

Gosvāmī, “Feeling deep resentment, the nāyikā exposes Kṛṣṇa’s ungratefulness in love with many cryptic and humorous words of derision. This is called sañjalpa.”

Vijaya, “What is avajalpa?”

Gosvāmī, “In the anger of avajalpa, Kṛṣṇa is declared to be hard-hearted, lusty, and sly, and therefore one is fearful that one’s hopeless attachment to Him may prove to be self-destructive.”

Vijaya, “What is abhijalpa?”

Gosvāmī, “Lamenting and making witticisms such as: ‘When Kṛṣṇa even causes the pain of separation to innocent birds such as His pet parrot and peacocks, then it is certainly futile to become attached to Him,’ is defined as abhijalpa.”

Vijaya, “What is ājalpa?”

Gosvāmī, “Feeling despondency, the nāyikā professes apathy towards Kṛṣṇa because of His deceitful and merciless ways in love that bring only distress to her. She suggests how pleasurable it would be to forget Him and pay attention to something else. These are the symptoms of ājalpa.”

Vijaya, “What is pratijalpa?”

Gosvāmī, “In pratijalpa, the nāyikā soliloquises about Kṛṣṇa’s libidinous desires being more befitting a pirate or the like. Therefore, if she were to meet Him that would certainly be rash and foolhardy when He is already romancing so many other women—but pretending to be interested in her alone. This message is given by the nāyikā to the awaiting messenger sent by Kṛṣṇa.”

Vijaya, “What is sujalpa?”

Gosvāmī, “When the nāyikā is grave, humble, and listless because of pangs of the heart, but straightforwardly and repeatedly enquires about Kṛṣṇa with unrestrained eagerness in love, this is called sujalpa. This completes the list of citrajalpa.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, am I eligible to hear about mādanabhāva, passionate loving emotion?”

Gosvāmī, “When the topmost exalted prema that is the essence of the hlādinī-śakti, Śrī Rādhā, is most splendidly and brilliantly manifested, that is called mādanabhāva. Mādanabhāva is eternally reposed within Śrī Rādhā and is Her essential and characteristic feature.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, is īrṣā an element of this bhāva?”

Gosvāmī, “Yes, īrṣā—grudge, envy, jealousy—has a very strong presence in mādana. Īrṣā, in mādanabhāva, is sometimes directed even towards inert objects incapable of reciprocation. Also, in mādana, Śrīmatī Rādhikā glorifies those persons or items that because of their close association with Kṛṣṇa exude an aura indicative of Kṛṣṇa, although She, Śrī Rādhā, is actually at the same time in close union with Her beloved Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, Śrīmatī Rādhikā sometimes speaks jealously of Kṛṣṇa’s garland of wild flowers, whereas, on the other hand, she may generously eulogize the pulindā tribal women who closely associate with Kṛṣṇa. These are some expressions of mādana-bhāva.”

Vijaya, “Under what conditions does mādanabhāva manifest?”

Gosvāmī, “Generally, the multi-hued mādanabhāva manifests only in saṁyogalīlā, pastimes of union between Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. Thus, mādana-bhāva appears in many diverse ways and innumerable shades in the nityalīlā of the divine loving couple.”

Vijaya, “Are there any quotes from illustrious sages about mādanabhāva?”

Gosvāmī, “Mādana-rasa is endless and unlimited. Therefore, the complete movements and influence of mādana-bhāva are unknown even to Kṛṣṇa. For this reason even Śukadeva Gosvāmī was unable to describe mādana-bhāva completely, what to speak of devotional philosophers such as Bhārata Muni, the great preceptor of rasa-tattva.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I have just heard from you something quite astonishing. Kṛṣṇa, the absolute repository of rasa and the complete enjoyer of rasa, is unable to know the full extent of mādanarasa. How is this possible?”

Gosvāmī, “Kṛṣṇa is Himself the very fountainhead of all rasa. He is unlimited, omnipresent, omniscient and omnipotent—nothing is unattainable or unknown to Him. Yet, the eternal and intrinsic nature of Kṛṣṇa is inconceivable and simultaneous oneness and difference and thus in this context of rasa He is eternally one with and different from all rasa simultaneously. As the Deity and embodiment of all rasa, He is the Supreme Enjoyer, absolutely ātmārāma. In this condition, no rasa remains separate from or independent of Him, but exists as an element of His very being. However, Kṛṣṇa is simultaneously the source of the many rasas and their unlimited play and interactions ‘external’ to Himself. Hence, being the embodied Deity of rasa, He enacts pleasurable pastimes with His many extroverted rasas; this mixing of the internal rasa of ātmārāma with the variety of rasas ‘external’ to Himself creates a unique and most nectarean blend of rasa.

“Therefore, by experiencing both His ātmā-gata-rasa, internal, and His parāgata-rasa, extroverted rasas, Kṛṣṇa relishes the ecstasy of līlā in ever-increasing unlimited diversity. The parā-gata-rasa expands from Kṛṣṇa and is embodied in the form of His hlādinī-śakti, Śrī Rādhā. From Śrī Rādhā, the parā-gata-rasa grows in profuse variety and reaches full bloom as the pārakiya-rasa of Vṛndāvana. Thus, mādanarasa reaches its highest experience in the most blissful and rarefied realm of pārakiyarāsa-līlā that is most enchanting to the internal ātmā-gata-rasa of Kṛṣṇa. In its purest form, pārakiyarasa is present in the aprakaṭa-līlā, unmanifest pastimes, of Goloka Vṛndāvana, and the same pure transcendental pastimes are manifest upon the earthly plane at Vraja-gokula. However, to the illusioned eyes of this world, these pastimes appear to be the activities of the māyā-śakti.”

Vijaya, “Prabhu, I am eternally grateful for the kindness you have shown me. Kindly give a summary of the bhāvas in the nectar ocean of mādhurya-rasa.”

Gosvāmī, “The variety of bhāvas manifested by the vrajagopīs is most wonderful and transcendental in character, thus a true understanding is outside the jurisdiction of mundane debate and logic—the full analytical delineation is impossible. The scriptures declare that Śrīmatī Rādhikā had her natural inborn rāga prior to meeting Kṛṣṇa at the stage of pūrvarāga, introductory courtship. This rāga—which should be understood to be mahā-bhāva—blossomed in a particular ambience to sneha, which progressively manifested māna, temperament; praṇaya, love; rāga, attachment; anurāga, further attachment; bhāva, ecstasy; and mahā-bhāva, greatest ecstasy. To have a full understanding of even just some aspects of these transcendental emotions is practically impossible. Nevertheless, what is confirmed is that lesser types of rati cannot attain to mahā-bhāva.

“When sādhāraṇi-rati, ordinary attachment, reaches its full maturity, it is still in the hazy state of dhūmāyitā, smoking—the unlit stage of attachment. Samañjasārati, balanced attachment, produces sneha, māna, praṇaya, on up to anurāga; thus, this rati is radiant in the stage of dīpta, aflame. In rūḍhabhāva, rati is uddīpta, ablaze, and in the modana-bhāva and mādana-bhāva of samarthā-rati, rati is at the level of sūddīpta, greatly inflamed and ablaze. Kindly understand that this summary is approximate as there may be variations under the influence of a specific time, place, and circumstance of the līlā. In conclusion, sādhāraṇirati does not surpass prema; samañjasārati is limited to anurāga; and samarthārati reaches mahābhāva.”

Vijaya, “What is the extent of rati in sakhyarasa?”

Gosvāmī, “The narma-vayasya-sakhā experiences rati up to anurāga, but the sakhās like Subala experience even mahābhāva.”

Vijaya, “The symptoms of sthāyibhāva you described earlier ultimately culminate in mahābhāva. Why are there different rasas towards Kṛṣṇa although sthāyibhāva is one and the same principle?”

Gosvāmī, “There are varying characteristic features in sthāyibhāva, therefore distinctions of rasa appear. In unmixed sthāyi-bhāva standing alone, no intimate rasa is displayed without interaction with the sāmagrī-bhāvas. Therefore, when the sāmagrī-bhāvas are fused together with sthāyibhāva, the differences that comprise the variety of rasa manifest. Sthāyi-bhāva assimilates sāmagrī in proportion to its different levels of profundity and after interacting with them attains the state of rasa towards Śrī Kṛṣṇa.”

Vijaya, “In mādhurya-rati, do the differences of rasa in the form of svakīya and pārakiya exist eternally?”

Gosvāmī, “Yes, svakīya and pārakiya are eternal rasas and the distinction between them is not a material designation. If this were so, then all the rasas, including mādhuryarasa, could be seen as based upon material distinctions and thus material in nature. Therefore, one should understand that the rasas are manifested eternally based upon the transcendent reality. Whatever eternal innate rasa the soul possesses, becomes the soul’s eternal creedal rasa with its concomitant ruci, taste; bhajana, application; and prāpti, perfection. Svakīya-rasa is also present in Vraja. In that rasa, those who perceive Kṛṣṇa as their husband and thus identify themselves as His wives eternally possess ruci, bhajana, and prāpti according to their individual status.

“You must comprehend that the svakīya-bhāva of dvārakālīlā is a manifestation of vaikuṇṭhatattva, while the svakīya-bhāva of vraja-līlā is an expansion of golokatattva—thus the svakīya-bhāva of vrajalīlā is of a distinct and higher status. You may perceive this same truth in another way as follows: The svakīya-bhāva of Vaikuṇṭha is related to the tattva of Śrī Vāsudeva, who is a Catur-vyūha expansion from Vrajanātha Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is in His highest manifestation in Goloka-dhāma.”

Saturated with the ecstasy of prema, Vijaya fell at Śrīla Gosvāmī’s feet to offer daṇḍavat obeisances. Then, he slowly got up, took his leave, and returned home.


Thus ends the thirty-sixth chapter of Jaiva-dharma, entitled:
Mādhurya-rasa, Part Six

Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Thirty Five
Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Thirty Seven

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