Further Consideration of Rasa-tattva
Part Three: The Rasas of Vātsalya and Mādhurya
by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura
(translated by Śrī Sarvabhāvana Prabhu)
One day, after relishing khicurī prasādam, Vijaya-kumāra and Vrajanātha went to pay their respects at the samādhi of Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura. Thereafter, they proceeded for the auspicious darśana of Śrī Ṭotā Gopīnātha, who resides resplendently in the garden-like area in south Jagannātha Purī known as Ṭoṭā. Finally, they arrived at the Śrī Śrī Rādhā-kānta temple. After offering prostrated obeisances at Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī’s feet, they sat down. However, soon Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī went away to take prasādam, so the two seekers of rasa–tattva discussed various Kṛṣṇa-conscious topics with Śrī Dhyānacandra Gosvāmī. Upon his return, Śrīla Gosvāmī sat upon his āsana and Vrajanātha felt inspired to humbly enquire about the details of vātsalya–rasa, parental mellow.
Śrīla Gosvāmī started his elucidation, “In vātsalya-rasa, Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the viṣaya–ālambana, principal objective, and His guru-jana, superior and elder Vraja-vāsīs, are the āśrayā-ālambana, principal shelter. Kṛṣṇa is the epitome of beauty, dark complexioned, the reservoir of all auspiciousness, tender and gentle, sweet in speech, guileless, bashful, humble, charitable, and respectful to His elders. Kṛṣṇa’s superiors are Vrajeśvarī Yaśodā Devi, Vrajeśvara Nanda Mahārāja, Rohiṇī Devī, the senior gopīs, Devakī Devī, Kuntī Devī, Śrī Vasudeva, Sāndīpanī Muni, and so on. Yaśodā Devī and Nanda Mahārāja are principal amongst the seniors. The uddīpanas in vātsalya–rasa are the different ages of Kṛṣṇa as a child, His beauty, His clothing as a child, His behaviour as a child, His restlessness, His sweet words and talks as a baby, His joyful chuckling laughter, and His sometimes mischievous pastimes, etc.”
Vrajanātha, “What are the different anubhāvas of this rasa?”
Gosvāmī, “Smelling the top of Kṛṣṇa’s head, gently squeezing and stroking His body, blessing Him, pampering Him, protecting and maintaining Him, offering Him good advice, are some of the anubhāvas. The sādhāraṇa, general, anubhāvas in this rasa are kissing, embracing, loudly calling Kṛṣṇa by His pet names, and restraining and chastising Him at appropriate moments.”
Vrajanātha, “What are the sattvika-vikāras in this rasa?”
Gosvāmī, “The eight regular transformations such as becoming stunned, ecstatic trembling, tears of ecstasy, etc., are present, plus, unique to this rasa, the outflow of breast-milk from the elder ladies. Thus, there are nine sattvika-vikāras.”
Vrajanātha, “What are the vyabhicārī-bhāvas of vātsalya–rasa?”
Gosvāmī, “All the vyabhicārī-bhāva symptoms of prīta-rasa (dāsya–rasa) that we have described earlier plus mūrchā, swoon, are manifest in vātsalya-rasa.”
Vrajanātha, “What is the nature of the sthāyi-bhāva in this rasa?”
Gosvāmī, “In this rasa, the sthāyi-bhāva is benevolent love and kindness, completely devoid of awe and reverence, given to the recipient of mercy. The vātsalya-rati of elders such as Yaśodā Devī is mature and matronly by nature. In this rasa, the sthāyi-bhāva extends through prema and sneha to reach rāga.
“Balarāma’s love for Kṛṣṇa is a mixture of dāsya-rasa and vātsalya–rasa. Yudhiṣṭhira’s rasa is infused with vātsalya, dāsya, and sakhya–rasa. Ugrasena’s dāsya-rasa is combined with vātsalya and sakhya–rasa. Nakula, Sahadeva, and Nārada exhibit a combination of sakhya and dāsya–rasa. The bhāvas of Lord Śiva, Garuḍa, Uddhava and many others also exhibit an amalgamation of dāsya and sakhya-rasa.”
Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, we have understood the magnificence of vātsalya–rasa. Kindly purify and enliven us with a description of the paramount of all rasas, mādhurya-rasa, the sweet conjugal mellow.”
Gosvāmī, “Mādhurya-bhakti-rasa has been designated the mukhya-bhakti-rasa, the principal of all devotional mellows. The fallen conditioned jīva has taken shelter of the material rasa; however, when he turns to Īśvara and nitya-dharma, he naturally embraces material detachment. Yet, until he acquires the qualification to engage in cid–rasa, transcendental mellow, he is certainly excluded from the perception of mādhurya-rasa. Mādhurya–rasa by nature is most esoteric and rare. Scarcely anyone is found to be an eligible candidate; hence, mādhurya-rasa must be kept very confidential. Therefore, although mādhurya-rasa is a very extensive subject, I will be brief and only describe the salient features.”
Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, I am a follower of the cowherd boy, Śrī Subala, so I understand that you will consider how much I can hear and understand about mādhurya-rasa.”
Gosvāmī, “The priya-narma-sakhās are permitted to participate in the līlās of mādhurya–rasa, also known as śṛṅgāra–rasa, to an extremely restricted degree. Keeping that in mind, I will reveal what is appropriate to your eligibility—not more.”
Vrajanātha, “Who are the ālambana of this rasa?”
Gosvāmī, “Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the viṣaya-ālambana of this rasa. He is the nāgara, epitome of unparalleled beauty, charm and amorous pastimes. The gopīs of Vraja are the āśraya–ālambana in mādhurya or śṛṅgāra–rasa. Amongst all the gopīs, Śrīmatī Rādhikā is the crest jewel. The sound of Kṛṣṇa’s muralī, flute, is a primary uddīpana in this rasa. Sidelong glances and enigmatic smiles are some of the anubhāvas in mādhurya–rasa. The entire range of sāttvika-bhāvas manifest in their fullness in mādhurya-rasa, and except for ālasya, laziness, and augrya, rudeness and volatility, all the other vyabhicārī–bhāvas are also displayed in this rasa.”
Vrajanātha, “What is the nature of the sthāyi-bhāva in this rasa?”
Gosvāmī, “When mādhurya-rati is nurtured by the natural vibhāva, loving impetus, of the heart, it blossoms into mādhurya–rasa. This divine love for Śrī Rādhā and Śrī Kṛṣṇa finds no viccheda, obstruction, being without dependence upon bhāvas that are svajātīya, compatible; and being undiminished by bhāvas that are vijātīya, incompatible.”
Vrajanātha, “How many types of mādhurya-rasa are there?”
Gosvāmī, “Vipralambha, love in separation, and sambhoga, love in union, are the two types of mādhurya–rasa.”
Vrajanātha, “What is vipralambha?”
Gosvāmī, “Vipralambha has many subdivisions such as pūrva-rāga, māna, and pravāsa.”
Vrajanātha, “What is pūrva-rāga?”
Gosvāmī, “The feelings and emotions that lovers experience before meeting each other are called pūrva-rāga.”
Vrajanātha, “What are māna and pravāsa?”
Gosvāmī, “Māna is well-known as the hurt pride and pique of the lover, and pravāsa means to be bereft of the lover’s presence.”
Vrajanātha, “What is sambhoga?”
Gosvāmī, “Sambhoga is the inexplicable exultation that arises as the lover and beloved meet. I will now abstain from revealing more about mādhurya-rasa. Those elevated souls who are eligible to engage in the esoteric science of mādhurya–bhakti-rasa, may refer to the book Śrī Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi of Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.”
Vrajanātha, “Kindly explain briefly the different varieties of gauṇa-bhakti-rasa, subordinate devotional mellows.”
Gosvāmī, “Hāsya, amusement; adbhuta, wonder; vīra, chivalry; karuṇa, pity; raudra, anger; bhayānaka, terror; and vībhatsa, horror, are the seven subordinate rasas. When they gain prominence and intensity to the extent of usurping the positions of the mukhya-rasa, principal mellow, they assert themselves as individual rasas. At the stage when they are able to express themselves independently they become the sthāyi-bhāva, and when nurtured by the inherent vibhāva they are converted to full-fledged rasas. Actually there are only five mukhya-rasas—śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, mādhurya—and these seven gauṇa-rasas generally fall within the category of vyabhicārī-bhāva.”
Vrajanātha, “While studying rasa-vicāra within the alaṅkāra-śāstra, I came across the seven gauṇa-rasas. I would really like to know the interrelationships between the mukhya-rasas and these gauṇa-rasas.”
Gosvāmī, “I will enumerate the different combinations of compatible and incompatible rasas.
“Śānta-rasa is amicable to dāsya, vībhatsa, dharma-vīra, dedication to religious performances, and adbhuta-rasa.
“On the other hand, adbhuta-rasa is friendly to dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, and mādhurya-rasa.
“The enemies of śānta-rasa are mādhurya, yuddha-vīra, raudra, and bhayānaka.
“Dāsya-rasa is congenial to vībhatsa, śānta, dharma-vīra, and dāna-vīra-rasa; its opponents are mādhurya, yuddha-vīra, and raudra-rasa.
“Sakhya-rasa is friendly to mādhurya, hāsya, and yuddha-vīra-rasa; it is unfriendly to vātsalya, vībhatsa, raudra, and bhayānaka-rasa.
“Vātsalya-rasa concurs with hāsya, karuṇa, and bhayānaka-rasa, but disagrees with mādhurya, yuddha-vīra, dāsya, and raudra-rasa.
“Mādhurya-rasa is compatible with hāsya and sakhya–rasa and incompatible with vātsalya, vībhatsa, śānta, raudra, and bhayānaka-rasa.
“Hāsya-rasa harmonizes with vībhatsa, mādhurya, and vātsalya-rasa, but is incongruent with karuṇa, and bhayānaka-rasa.
“Adbhuta-rasa compliments vīra, śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, and mādhurya, but resists hāsya, sakhya, dāsya, raudra, and vībhatsa-rasa.
“Vīra-rasa is friendly to adbhuta, hāsya, sakhya, and dāsya-rasa, but inimical to bhayānaka-rasa. Some are of the opinion that śānta-rasa is also inimical to vīra-rasa.
“Karuṇa-rasa coordinates well with raudra and vātsalya-rasa, but not with vīra, hāsya, sambhoga-mādhurya, and adbhuta–rasa.
“Raudra-rasa is in harmony with karuṇa and vīra-rasa, but not with hāsya, mādhurya, and bhayānaka-rasa.
“Bhayānaka-rasa, mixes well with vībhatsa and karuṇa-rasa, but opposes vīra, mādhurya, hāsya, and raudra-rasa.
“Vībhatsa-rasa is congruent with śānta, hāsya, and dāsya-rasa, but incongruent with śṛṅgāra and sakhya-rasa.
“All the other rasas are taṭastha, neutral, to one another.”
Vrajanātha, “Gurujī, what are the results when the different rasas mingle?”
Gosvāmī, “When compatible rasas mingle the result is greatly relishable. The best result is gained when the aṅga, limbs, link up with aṅgī, body. The criterion is not whether the rasas are mukhya, principal, or gauṇa, subordinate, but that the aṅgī-rasas, central ‘body’ mellows, combine with compatible rasas that may harmoniously become their aṅga, associated compatible limbs.”
Vrajanātha, “Kindly define the difference between rasas that are designated as either aṅgī or aṅga.”
Gosvāmī, “Again the consideration whether the rasa to be designated as either aṅgī or aṅga is a mukhya or gauṇa-rasa is not the conclusive element. The rasa that prevails for the moment over all others is the aṅgī-rasa and those rasas that nourish that aṅgī-rasa are called the aṅga-rasas and they thus take on the role of sañcāri-bhāvas.
“In this regard, the Viṣṇu-dharmottara states:
rasānāṁ samavetānāṁ yasya rūpaṁ bhaved bahu
sa mantavyo rasaḥ sthāyī śeṣāḥ sañcāriṇo matāḥ
“‘When several rasas become simultaneously active, the most outstanding is considered a sthāyi-rasa, while the others are designated sañcāri-bhāvas.’”
Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, how does a gauṇa–rasa obtain the position of an aṅgī–rasa?”
Gosvāmī, “Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī in the Northern Division, Eight Wave, Verses 46-50, of the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu states:
pradyan vibhāvanotkarṣāt puṣöiṁ mukhyena lambhitaḥ
kuñcatā nija-nāthena gauṇo’py aṅgitvam aśnute
“‘Sometimes, mukhya-rasa, the protagonist primary mellow, prefers a saṅkoca, withdrawn, mood, and nourishes the gauṇa–rasa, subordinate mellow, and, simultaneously, vibhāva, the impetus of love, becomes strongly manifest. Then, gauṇa-rasa wears the crown of an aṅgī–rasa. Meanwhile, mukhya-rasa slips into the role of an aṅga-rasa and cloaks her own magnificence. Just as Vāmana supported Indra, similarly mukhya-rasa acting as an aṅga nurtures gauṇa-rasa, now turned aṅgī.’
mukhyas tv aṅgatvam āsādya puṣṇann indram upendravat
gauṇam evāṅginaṁ kṛtvā nigūḍha-ṅija-vaibhavaḥ
“‘Yet, mukhya–rasa always shines resplendently in the heart of the devotee saturated with bhakti, which is scented with the sublime fragrance of endless, transcendental desire to serve the Lord, unlike the gauṇa-sañcāri-rasas, which appear on occasion and then eventually merge away into the mukhya-rasa as they becomes wanton vyabhicārī-bhāvas. Thus, mukhya–rasa ultimately remains firm and preponderant.’
anādi-vāsanodbhāsa vāsite bhakta-cetasi
bhāty eva na tu līnaḥ syād eva sañcāri-gauṇavat
“‘Certainly, mukhya-aṅgī-rasa allows herself to be garnished by svajātīya–aṅgas, compatible mellows, and vijātīya-aṅgas, incompatible mellows, to form a conglomerate of bhāvas, transcendental emotions; however, ultimately, she, mukhya-aṅgī-rasa, asserts her independence and predominance.’
aṅgī-mukhyaḥ svam atrāṅgair bhāvais tair abhivarddhayan
svajātīyair vijātīyaiḥ svatantraḥ sann virājate
“‘One who is attracted to a particular mukhya-rasa becomes eternally imbued and ensconced in her, which is thus manifested as the aṅgī-rasa. All other rasas, even the other mukhya-rasas, are relegated to the position of aṅga in relation to one’s essential mukhya-aṅgī-rasa.’
yasya mukhyasya yo bhakto bhaven nitya-nijāśrayaḥ
aṅgī sa eva tatra syān mukhyo’py anyo ‘ṅgatāṁ vrajet
“‘Another relevant point is that only when the aṅga–rasas flow harmoniously with the aṅgī–rasa, thus enhancing the relish of rasa, can one actually speak of aṅga-rasas; otherwise, discussion of an unproductive alliance of aṅga–rasas with the aṅgī–rasa is contradictory and meaningless.’”
Vrajanātha, “What happens when contrary rasas flow together?”
Gosvāmī, “Then a tasteless, unpleasant rasa is created, similar to a concoction of deliciously sweet nectar with salty, acid liquids. Such a distasteful mixture is called rasābhāsa, incompatible conflicting mellows.”
Vrajanātha, “Is this mixture of rasābhāsa not relishable under any circumstance?”
Gosvāmī, “Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī gives an answer in the Northern Division, Eight Wave, Verses 63-64, in his Bhakti–rasāmṛta-sindhu:
dvayor ekatarasyeha bādhyatvenopavarṇane
smaryyamāṇatayāpy uktau sāmyena vacane ‘pi ca
rasāntareṇa vyavadhau taṭasthena priyeṇa vā
viṣayāśraya-bhede ca gauṇena dviṣatā saha
ity ādiṣu na vairasyaṁ vairiṇo janayed yutiḥ
“‘The mixing of two contrary rasas does not produce virasatā, a conflict in taste, in the following situations: when one logically describes the pre-eminence of one contrary rasa of the two that have mingled, and thereby reveals the inferiority of the other rasa; or when one describes an incompatible rasa in recollection; or when one dispassionately describes a particular similarity between the incompatible rasas; or when a taṭasthā–rasa, neutral mellow, or preya-rasa, friendly mellow, intervenes between the incompatible rasas; or when there is divisive conflict between the viṣaya, the object of love, and the āśrayā, resting place of love, at the time of mixing of the incompatible gauṇa–rasa and mukhya-rasa.’
“Another interesting feature is when a single devotee manifests dāsya and vātsalya at different times, as in devotees such Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira. Thus, two mutually incompatible rasas generally never manifest together at the same time. However, in the stage of adhirūḍha mahābhāva, the highest state of spiritual love, even if there is an arising confluence of all the opposing rasas, still rasābhāsa is not generated.”
“Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī further explains in Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, Northern Wave, Eight Division, verse 57:
kvāpy acintya-mahāśakatau mahāpuruṣa-śekhare
“‘In some rare cases, crest jewel mahā–puruṣa devotees endowed with inconceivable mahā–śakti, divine potency, experience a simultaneous confluence of contrary rasas that only serves to enhance their extraordinary rapture in relishing rasa.’”
Vrajanātha, “I have heard from the lips of learned Vaiṣṇavas that Śrī Caitanya Mahaprabhu strongly denounced rasābhāsa, to the extent that He refused to hear any composition that was corrupted by rasābhāsa. So far I have been told the numerous discrepancies of rasābhāsa—may I also hear of the different varieties of rasābhāsa?”
Gosvāmī, “When a mixture of mellows is incompatible and defective, it is defined as rasābhāsa. There are three varieties of rasābhāsa: uparasa, anurasa, and aparasa, which are graded respectively: uttama, major; madhyama, intermediate; and kaniṣṭha, minor.”
Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, kindly explain uparasa.”
Gosvāmī, “Sthāyi-bhāva, vibhāva, anubhāva, etc., which are responsible for creating the twelve rasas—śānta, dāsya, etc., and hāsya, adbhuta, etc.,—may assume the status of uparasa. This is caused when the sthayi-bhava, vibhāva, or anubhāva become virūpitā, disfigured, by the imposition of a further dissonant rasa.”
Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, kindly explain anurasa.”
Gosvāmī, “When the secondary rasas, beginning with hāsya, are manifest by a person who at that time has taṭasthā–bhāva, neutral emotion, towards Kṛṣṇa, they are designated as anurasa. If vīra, chivalrous emotion, is manifested by personalities only distantly associated with Kṛṣṇa, this may also be designated anurasa.”
Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, how can such an emotion be designated as rasa when it arises in the heart of someone who is distant from Kṛṣṇa? Surely, at best, such sentiment is gross mundane rasa. Why then is such sentiment called anurasa?”
Gosvāmī, “Rasas that do not have a direct and personal connection with Kṛṣṇa are anurasas; for example, the laughter of the gopīs upon seeing the prancing and pranks of the pet monkey of Śrīmatī Rādhārāṇī, Kakkhaṭī. Śrīla Nārada Muni expresses adbhuta, wonder, when he hears the parrots in Bhāṇḍīravana discussing Vedānta philosophy. Certainly, there is a slight and distant connection with Kṛṣṇa, but not a direct one. This is anurasa.”
Vrajanātha, “What is aparasa?”
Gosvāmī, “In a situation where Kṛṣṇa is the viṣaya, object, of hāsya–rasa, laughter, etc., and His enemies are the āśraya, shelter or enjoyers of this rasa, then such hāsya-rasa, etc., are called aparasa. The repeated derisive laughter of Jarāsandha upon seeing the flight of Kṛṣṇa is aparasa.
“Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī writes in the Northern Division, Ninth Wave, verse 21, of his book Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu:
bhāvā sarve tad-ābhāsā rasābhāsāś ca kecana
amī proktā rasābhijñaiḥ sarve’pi rasanād rasāḥ
“‘Some persons refer to the entire spectrum of such bhāvas as tad-ābhāsa and others as rasābhāsa. However, the expert realized scholars of rasa designate any transcendental bhāva evoking divine bliss as rasa.’”
The effect of the analysis of rasa was so overpowering upon Vrajanātha and Vijaya-kumāra that they both fell to the ground. Their eyes brimming with unrestrained tears, they could simply repeat in gratitude:
oṁ ajñāna-timirāndhasya jñānāñjana-śalākayā
cakṣur unmīlitaṁ yena tasmai śrī-gurave namaḥ
“‘I humbly worship my spiritual master who has applied the salve of transcendental knowledge upon my eyes and thus extirpated the five severe layers of material nescience, which are: ignorance about the jīva’s real spiritual identity; false identification of the body as the self; assumed false proprietorship over matter as her master and enjoyer; attachment to material conceptions and objects in forgetfulness of their actual relationship with Kṛṣṇa and thus absorption in material duality; and the resultant fear, antagonism, and distorted perception of material bewilderment. Timirāndhasya, the darkness of ignorance, in the form of striving for the four Vedic goals—dharma, artha, kāma, and mokṣa—stems from these five layers of nescience. Mercifully, the guru opens the spiritual vision of the jīva and makes him fixed in devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.’”
Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī bent down, raised the prostrate forms of Vrajanātha and Vijaya-kumāra and firmly embraced them. He showered unreserved blessings upon his disciples, exclaiming, “May the beacon of rasa-tattva light up your hearts!”
Thereafter, Vijaya-kumāra and Vrajanātha made daily visits to the Rādhā-kānta temple and engrossed themselves in spiritual discussions with Śrī Dhyānacandra Gosvāmī. Drinking the caraṇāmṛta and eating the nectarean prasādam from the lips of Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī became an eagerly awaited daily ritual for them. On different days, they would visit the various holy spots of Purī such as the bhajana-kuṭīra and samādhi–mandira of Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura, the Siddha-bakula tree, the Śrī Ṭoṭā Gopīnātha Mandira, and so on. At these places, they observed the different techniques of many Vaiṣṇavas in chanting hari-nāma, and their own quality of chanting was enriched by these examples.
Furthermore, they were very attracted to visiting the places of Śrī Caitanya’s pastimes, as described in the Stavāvalī and Stavamālā, and experienced transcendental bhāva in this way. Whenever they saw śuddha-vaiṣṇavas performing kīrtana, they joined in. Vijaya-kumāra and Vrajanātha were gradually advancing in chanting and śuddha-bhakti.
One day, Vijaya-kumāra considered, “Śrīla Gosvāmī has given a very brief account of mādhurya–rasa. Vrajanātha is attracted to sakhya–rasa; however, I am definitely inclined to mādhurya–rasa and feel the urge to ask Gurudeva for further details of this topic. At a suitable time, when we are alone, I shall put further enquires.” At the request of Vijaya-kumāra, Śrī Dhyānacandra Gosvāmī kindly gave a copy of the book Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi, which is a great exposition upon mādhurya–rasa. Vijaya-kumāra enthusiastically delved into the book, going to Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī for clarification whenever doubts arose.
Sitting on the beach one evening watching the endless waves of the ocean, Vijaya-kumāra and Vrajanātha mused that life was like those waves, a continuum of unknown future events. Who could predict the future? Therefore, the best course of action was to immediately learn the process of rāga-mārga bhajana, the path of cultivating spontaneous attraction in devotional worship, from Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī. Vrajanātha commented, “I have seen the devotional process that Śrī Dhyānacandra Gosvāmī has propounded in his bhajana-paddhati notebook—I think we should emulate that process. If we could make copies and receive more esoteric instructions upon that process from our beloved Gurudeva, then we shall surely get good results.”
This decision having been made, Vrajanātha humbly approached Śrī Dhyānacandra Gosvāmī to make copies of his handwritten notes on the process of his bhajana, but Dhyānacandra said, “Without the permission of Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī, I am not in a position to give copies.” Vrajanātha and Vijaya-kumāra then approached Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī about this, to which he consented, saying that they should come to him with the notes for clarification. After requesting and receiving copies from Śrī Dhyānacandra Gosvāmī, Vijaya and Vrajanātha decided to read the notes meticulously and to consult Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī about their esoteric aspects at every stage.
Śrī Dhyānacandra Gosvāmī was a great paṇḍita, well versed in all scriptures. His specialty, however, was the profound methodology of the Vaiṣṇava science of bhajana in which he was the foremost of the disciples of Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī. Considering them well qualified, Śrī Dhyānacandra Gosvāmī tutored Vijaya and Vrajanātha in all the esoteric aspects of rāga-mārga bhajana. Whenever doubts arose, Vijaya and Vrajanātha humbly approached Śrīla Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī for clarification. Having understood the divine attributes of Śrī Caitanya and having grasped the transcendental essence of the pastimes of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, Vijaya and Vrajanātha joyfully entered the path of aṣṭa-kālīya bhajana, devotional meditation upon eternal pastimes of the Supreme Lord throughout the eight time divisions of the day.
Thus ends the thirtieth chapter of Jaiva-dharma, entitled:
Further Consideration of Rasa-tattva, Part Three: The Rasas of Vātsalya and Mādhurya