Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Twenty Seven
Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Twenty Nine

Further Consideration of Rasa-tattva
Part Two: Mukhya-rati, Principal Attachment

by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura
(translated by Śrī Sarvabhāvana Prabhu)

The next day Vijaya-kumāra and Vrajanātha returned to Śrī Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī and after offering their prostrate obeisances continued with their esoteric enquiries. In particular, they wished to clarify certain subjects of rasa-tattva that had been discussed during their earlier visits.

Vrajanātha started the enquiries, “Gurudeva, you have described the four bhāvas: vibhāva, anubhāva, sattvika-bhāva, and vyabhicārī-bhāva. Amongst these four bhāvas was there mention of sthāyi-bhāva, permanent spiritual mellow?”

Gosvāmī, “All the categories you have mentioned are the different forms of bhāva. From amongst them, the bhāva that pre-eminently asserts itself like an emperor, embracing, controlling and subjugating all other bhāvas, whether congenial or conflicting, is the devotee’s sthāyi-bhāva. Kṛṣṇa-rati, transcendental love of Kṛṣṇa, situated within the heart of the devotee āśrayā is known as sthāyibhāva. When we discussed āśrayā previously under the topic of sāmagrī-bhāva, we placed āśrayā in the category of ālambana, basic cause, within the spectrum of vibhāva. In this way, we indirectly indicated the sthāyi-bhāva within the heart of the devotee. Sthāyi-bhāva, the predominant bhāva, brings the rest of the bhāvas under its sway and orchestrates varying bhāvas to act as the central impetus in the creation of rasa. Simultaneously the remaining bhāvas may be engaged to play the role of assistants to the particular bhāva acting centrally. Although sthāyi-bhāva is the āsvādayanrūpa, the cause of tasting spiritual mellow, it also is the āsvādyarūpa, the object of relish.

“In solitude deeply contemplate the nature of sthāyi-bhāva and thus analyse the distinctive features that separate sthāyi-bhāva from the other bhāvas. Rati born of sthāyi-bhāva is of two kinds: mukhyarati and gauṇarati.”

Vrajanātha, “What is mukhyarati?”

Gosvāmī, “Earlier in our explanation of bhāva-bhakti, we described rati of the śuddhasattva category. That is the mukhya-rati, to which we are now referring.”

Vrajanātha, “When we studied nyāya—an insignificant branch of knowledge compared to our present level of education—our syllabus included a section on rati. My views on rati from that time have completely changed because of my realizations about the state of śuddha-sattva, transcendence. It is now clear to me that the sublime exchanges of rasa with the Supreme Lord are only feasible for a jīva situated in his svarūpa untouched by material contamination.

“The rhetoricians’ concept of rati is mundane, as it proposes that rati is experienced by the jīva only in his materially embodied condition and by his subtle body of mind and intellect. Your explanation of rati has opened my eyes to a divine transcendental understanding of rasa, the most precious treasure of the śuddha-jīva, pure soul. The baddhajīva, conditioned soul, on the contrary has very little access to transcendental rasa and can only eventually come to the position of relishing such rasa by the mercy of the hlādinī-śakti. I would like to learn more about the details of śuddha-rati, pure transcendental attachment.”

Śrī Gopāla-guru Gosvāmī was extremely pleased to hear Vrajanātha’s perceptive analysis of this esoteric philosophy. Pearly teardrops rained down from his eyes in uncontained joy, he embraced Vrajanātha and said, “I am truly fortunate to have gained a disciple like you. Listen, mukhyarati is divided into two: svārtha and parārtha.”

Vrajanātha, “What is the nature of svārtha-mukhya-rati?”

Gosvāmī, “Svārtha-rati nourishes itself with the help of all congenial bhāvas; however, opposing bhāvas produce its diminution.”

Vrajanātha, “What is the nature of parārtha-mukhya-rati?”

Gosvāmī, “Parārtha-rati contracts itself to accommodate both congenial and opposing bhāvas.

“There is another higher division of mukhya-rati into the five types: śānta, neutrality; dāsya, servitude; sakhya, fraternity; vātsalya, parenthood; and mādhurya, conjugality. Just as the sun-rays produce many colours of light when passing through different varieties of quartz; similarly, śuddharati produces distinct and variant symptoms when passing through the different shades of sthāyibhāva.”

Vrajanātha, “Śrīla Gosvāmī, what is this śuddha-rati, pure love?”

Gosvāmī, “Principal śuddharati is subdivided into three types: sāmānya general; svaccha, clear; and śānta, peaceful.

Sāmānya-rati is the attachment the people in general feel for Śrī Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Lord. However, in dedicated devotees mukhya-rati takes on a variety of transcendental moods towards Kṛṣṇa according to the particular devotee’s innate spiritual disposition. When such kṛṣṇarati passes through the devotee’s pure bhāva, it is called svaccha, clear or transparent. Devotees infused with such rati sometimes see Kṛṣṇa as the Almighty Master and glorify Him with prayers in the mood of dāsya. Otherwise, they see Kṛṣṇa as their friend and joke with Him in the of mood sakhya. Alternatively, they think of Kṛṣṇa as their son who is to be fondled and protected with parental care in the mood of vātsalya. Then again, in the mādhurya mood they see Kṛṣṇa as their kānta, lover, and feel exhilarated in His company. In addition, sometimes in parama-brahman-rati, they lovingly meditate upon Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Soul within their heart. In śāntarati, devotees with rati meditate upon Kṛṣṇa as Paramātmā and achieve transcendental consciousness characterised by peacefulness and equipoise.

Śuddharati is again divided into two: kevalarati, exclusive; and saṅkulārati, mixed. In kevalarati, only one mood of rati is in full play, without the intrusion of any other. This exclusive mood is exhibited by the residents of Vraja, such as servants like Rasāla, friends like Śrīdāmā and Sudāmā, and by gurujana, senior personalities, such as Nanda Mahārāja. When a mixture of two or more rasas is displayed within the rati of a devotee, we speak of saṅkulā-rati. Uddhava, Bhīma, and Rādhārāṇī’s elderly maid, Mukharā, are examples of devotees with saṅkulā-rati.”

Vrajanātha, “I had the impression that the eternal devotees of Vraja did not manifest śāntarati. However, I now see that a little śānta-rati is present in Vraja in a mixed form. According to the jaḍaalaṅkāra, materialistic books of nyāya, there is no rati in the state of śānta. However, we see the presence of rati in para-brahman-rati and thus this particular rati—which is śānta-rati—must be accepted as one variety of attachment for the Supreme. Now I am eager to hear about the symptoms of dāsya-rati.”

Gosvāmī, “Dāsyarati is evoked within the devotee when he considers with a reverential attitude, ‘Kṛṣṇa is my Lord and I am His servant.’ Those devotees who are firmly attached to this rati are not charmed by anything of this world.”

Vrajanātha, “What are the qualities of sakhyarati?”

Gosvāmī, “Those devotees who consider Kṛṣṇa as their equal and have unflagging faith and absorption in this rasa towards Him possess sakhyarati. In the mellow of sakhyarati there is joking, laughing, and similar activities of friendship.”

Vrajanātha, “What are the characteristics of vātsalyarati?”

Gosvāmī, “Persons senior to Kṛṣṇa shower kindness and love upon Him in vātsalyarati. The characteristic of this rati is a protective mood in which the guardians look after Kṛṣṇa, perform auspicious rituals for His protection and welfare, offer Him their blessings, fondle Him with affection, and so on.”

Vrajanātha, “Kindly also describe mādhurya-rati-lakṣaṇam, the nature of attachment in the conjugal mellow.”

Gosvāmī, “When the vrajagopīs’ love for Kṛṣṇa is prompted by the eight types of sambhoga, enjoyment, such as smaraṇa, remembrance; darśana, sight, and so on, this mellow is called mādhuryarasa. This rati is expressed by such means as kaṭākṣa, sidelong glances; bhṛu-kṣepa, longing amorous glances; priyavāṇī, sweet words; and hāsya, laughing and joking. As one moves from śānta to mādhurya, the rati is increasingly relishable and blissful. According to their elevation in bhakti, these moods are eternally present in the pure devotees.

“Thus briefly, I have enumerated the five kinds of mukhya-rati, principal attachment.”

Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, please now describe gauṇa-rati that gives rise to the secondary spiritual rasas.”

Gosvāmī, “The superexcellent secondary bhāvas that belong to the ālambana, the transcendental lover and beloved, are known as gauṇa-rati. There are seven gauṇa-ratis: hāsya, laughter; vismaya, astonishment; utsāha, eagerness; śoka or karuṇa, lamentation or compassion; krodha, anger; bhaya, fear; and jugupsā or nindā, scorn, ghastliness, and disgust. Only the first six bhāvas can be directed towards Kṛṣṇa. When śuddharati appears within the heart of a devotee and he feels his bodily activities to be an object of disgust, we speak of jugupsā-bhāva, scorn, which is considered the seventh gauṇabhāva.

“Between the secondary gauṇabhāva symptoms and the primary mukhya-śuddha-sattva-bhāva there are inherent differences. Yet, because gauṇa-bhāva is linked with the contracting parārtha-mukhya-rati, the seven emotions beginning with hāsya are categorised as rati. In certain devotees, one or more of the gauṇa-bhāvas reach a constant state in their relationship with Kṛṣṇa, but this is generally not the case. Thus, gauṇa-bhāvas are referred to as irregular, unsteady and temporary, and only under specific conditions do they attain sufficient force to dislodge the primary rati and establish themselves as the preponderant bhāva.”

Vrajanātha, “In the teachings of nyāya, there is mention of eight bhāvas such as śṛṅgāra, conjugality; hāsya, jocularity; and karuṇa, mercy; and so on. I now realize that these concepts of bhāva as explained in the teachings of nyāya are only applicable to the material rasa that is exhibited in the ordinary mundane dealings between a man and a woman. They play no role in the description of the pure, transcendental rasa of Vraja. The material bhāvas thrive in the mundane mind and consciousness, but never in the purified spiritual consciousness. The presentation given by the great spiritual preceptors in describing pure sthāyi-bhāva with its five mukhyarasas and seven gauṇarasas is accurate in all respects.

“Now, kindly expand upon hāsyarati, the attachment causing the mellow of humour.”

Gosvāmī, “Hāsya rati appears when funny words are spoken, when the dress looks odd, when actions are caricatured, and so on. Opening of the heart, widening of the eyes, flaring of the nostrils, trembling of the lips and cheeks, characterise this mellow. This mellow is also generated by love of Kṛṣṇa, combined with saṅkoca-bhāva, the emotion of hesitation.”

Vrajanātha, “What are symptoms of vismayarati, attachment causing the mellow of astonishment?”

Gosvāmī, “By seeing something wonderful or extraordinary, the heart expands in vismaya, astonishment and wonder. The external symptoms are such as widening of the eyes, exclamations of appreciation, and horripilation.”

Vrajanātha, “What are the symptoms of utsāha-rati, attachment causing the mellow of enthusiasm?”

Gosvāmī, “Utsāha is the resolute enthusiasm of the mind to engage in grand projects, which are eulogized by stalwart saints. This mellow displays symptoms such as urgency in activity, impatience, great exertion, and fervour.”

Vrajanātha, “What are the symptoms of krodha-rati, attachment causing the mellow of anger?”

Gosvāmī, “In krodha-rati, the heart burns in rage, on account of pratikūla-bhāva, displeasing and unfavourable feelings. This mellow displays symptoms such as callous intemperance, frowning, and livid eye expressions.”

Vrajanātha, “What are the symptoms of bhayarati, attachment causing fear and dread?”

Gosvāmī, “Bhayarati is caused by seeing a terrifying scene where the heart palpitates with restless apprehension. This mellow displays symptoms such as an endeavour to conceal oneself, dryness of the heart, and flight from the scene.”

Vrajanatha, “What are the symptoms of jugupsārati, attachment causing scorn and condemnation?”

Gosvāmī, “Jugupsārati is evoked by something contemptuous, leading to disgust. Certain physical transformations are exhibited in this rati, such as spitting, grimacing, and spontaneous words of vilification. These feelings are only considered transcendental rati, when they are favourably disposed to Kṛṣṇa. If they are not, they are simply the mundane foibles of the heart of an ordinary mortal.”

Vrajanātha, “How many bhāvas are there in bhaktirasa?”

Gosvāmī, “There are eight sthāyi-bhāvas, thirty-three sañcāri-bhāvas, and eight sattvika-bhāvas, which total forty-nine. When these bhāvas are mundane, they stem from the three modes of material nature and become the cause of fleeting joys and sorrows. However, when they are dovetailed with Kṛṣṇa, they become transcendental to the material modes and are sources of profound immortal bliss. Even in śoka, deep despondency, they give forth immense pleasure.

“Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī writes that Kṛṣṇa and His dear devotees, headed by the gopīs, act as the ālambana—beloved and lovers, the foundation of bhakti-rasa—and therefore generate mutual rati in the form of the eight sthāyibhāvas of loving attachment. In this way, Kṛṣṇa and His devotees are the kāraṇa, cause, of the rasa of rati, spiritual love. The eight sattvika-bhāvas causing the eight sāttvika vikāras, transcendental bodily transformations, beginning with stambha, being stunned in ecstasy, are counted among the kārya, effects, of rati. And the thirty-three vyabhicārī-bhāvas (sañcārī-bhāvas) beginning with nirveda, indifference to material enjoyment; act as sahāya, assistants, of this rati. However, in the final analysis, when rasa is evidently manifest, these various manifestations of rati are no longer described as kāraṇa, cause; kārya, effect; and sahāya, assistants; but as vibhāva, instigative causes of ecstasy. Vibhāva has the power to make these manifestations of rati increasingly competent to relish the viṣaya, Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, the ācāryas also categorise the many various manifestations of rati as vibhāva, instigative causes of bhāva. Furthermore, because nṛtya, dancing, and other similar manifestations of rati magnify and demonstrate vibhāva, they are called anubhāvas, resultant manifestations of bhāva.

“As pure transcendental bhāva manifests the eight sāttvika-vikāras these are called sattvika-bhāvas. The various bhāvas, which inject the thirty-three symptoms beginning with nirveda into anubhāva-rati and vibhāva-rati and thus breathe impetus and variegatedness into them, are known as the thirty-three sañcāri-bhāvas, simulative exciting ecstasies. Ultimately, the śuddha-bhaktas and ācāryas have identified vibhāva as the root cause of bhakti. In truth, the transcendental emotion of bhāva being productive of and equivalent to rati is a subject of inconceivable nature and the arena of the purest form of bhakti.

“Scriptures such as the Mahābhārata have deified bhāva as transcendentally pure and spotless, enthroning it upon a pedestal beyond the jurisdiction of empirical speculation and analysis. Therefore, the scriptures recommend that one not to encroach upon this inconceivable knowledge through inductive philosophy and rhetoric. Rati is the enchanting element in the paradigm of rasa; it colours Kṛṣṇa’s beauty, qualities and pastimes with the hues of vibhāva thus nourishing vibhāva along with itself. Kṛṣṇa’s beauty, qualities, and pastimes are the mainstay of mādhurya-rasa. Initially, rati manifests the ecstatic beauty of Kṛṣṇa, and after the beauty has been relished, bhāva in its variegatedness turns around and reciprocally enhances rati. Therefore, in conclusion, all the divisions of bhāvavibhāva, anubhāva, sattvika bhāva, and sañcārī (vyabhicārī) bhāva—give support to rati, and vice versa.”

Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, kindly explain to us the differences between kṛṣṇarati, loving attachment for Kṛṣṇa, and viṣayarati, attachment for material objects of enjoyment.”

Gosvāmī, “Viṣayarati is worldly and gross; kṛṣṇarati is supramundane and purely spiritual. The roots of kṛṣṇarati are in the extraordinary, in transcendence. Worldly love is felt as pleasure when the lovers are united and as pain when they are separated. When kṛṣṇaprema blossoms in the pure devotee’s heart, rasa is churned up to produce nectarean bliss. In the mood of separation, this bliss acquires wonderful nuances. During the conversation between Śrī Caitanya and Śrīla Rāmānanda Rāya, the latter composed a poem in reply to the question of Mahāprabhu. The poem, given in Śrī Caitanyacaritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā, 8.194, describes the fascinating facets of vipralambha, bliss in separation, in some detail. A whisper of grief is seemingly present in these lines, but in reality they are descriptions of intense exultation.”

Vrajanātha, “The rhetoricians argue that manifest rasa is incomplete. What is our answer to this assertion?”

Gosvāmī, “Mundane rasa is indeed incomplete. In material rasa, favourable material sāmagrī, ingredients, are necessary to nourish the material attachment and emotion, which diminishes in their absence. However, transcendental spiritual rasa is unparalleled, and when the devotee is on the stage of siddhaavasthā, perfection, this rasa is uninterrupted, undiminished and self-manifested. In the stage of sādhana spiritual rasa displays itself as a reality perceivable from within the material world; however, spiritual rasa is always rooted in transcendence and should never be mistaken to be a material manifestation. Mundane rasa diminishes and disappears at the time of separation of the lovers, whereas spiritual rasa continually shines brighter and brighter in the vipralambha, mood of separation, of a renounced devotee. Transcendental rasa is the effervescence of the majestic hlādinīśakti and epitomizes Her sublime characteristics and inconceivable potency of bliss. Hence, unmitigated supreme happiness even in vipralambha is synonymous with supramundane rasa. In conclusion, rasa cannot be comprehended by the mundane intellect, being transcendental and inconceivable.”

Vrajanātha, “How many spiritual rasas are there?”

Gosvāmī, “There is one mukhyarati, which is divided into the five principal rasas, plus the seven gauṇa-rasas—thus making a total of eight.”

Vrajanātha, “The more I hear about this topic, the thirstier I become to hear more. What are these rasas?”

Gosvāmī, “Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī writes in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, 2.5.64:

mukhyas tu pañcadhā śantaḥ prītaḥ preyāṁś ca vatsalaḥ
madhuraś cety amī jñeyā yathā pūrvam anuttamāḥ
hasyo ‘dbhutas tathā vīraḥ karuṇo raudra ity api
bhayānakaḥ sa vībhatsa iti gauṇaś ca saptadhā

“‘The one principal rati of divine love is divided into the five principal devotional rasas: śānta, neutrality, passivity; pritā, satisfaction and servitude; preya, affection; vātsalya, protective indulgence; and mādhurya, conjugality. Each succeeding rasa is increasingly superior to the preceding rasa.’

hasyo ‘dbhutas tathā vīraḥ karuṇo raudra ity api
bhayānakaḥ sa bībhatsa iti gauṇaś ca saptadhā

“‘There are seven subordinate rasas: hāsya, humour; adbhuta, wonder; vīra, enthusiasm, chivalry; karuṇa, mercy; raudra, wrath; bhayānaka, fear; and bībhatsa, ghastliness.’

Vrajanātha, “What is the correct understanding of bhāva in the context of spiritual cinmayarasa?”

Gosvāmī, “Elevated, self-realized saints with one-pointed purified minds have probed deeply into their innermost selves with the help of the science of bhakti to release the transcendental loving emotions locked within. When these emotions appear in the citta they are classified as bhāva within the spectrum of rasa. We have discussed earlier that there are two varieties of bhāva: cintyabhāva, material and conceivable emotion; and acintya-bhāva, spiritual and inconceivable emotion. Cintya-bhāva is a subject of debate and discussion, arising as it does from within the limited arena of the intellect of the conditioned soul and is a product of material nature and mundane religiosity.

Cintya-bhāva remains materially sensual even if directed toward the Supreme Lord. Factually, cintyabhāva is improperly applied and incongruous in relationship to the Supreme, because the Supreme Lord resides in the realm of transcendence. However, it would be incorrect to conclude that transcendental acintya-bhāva does not exist at all in relationship to the Supreme Lord only because the Lord is situated in transcendence beyond the material sensuality of cintya-bhāva. Actually, the entire gamut of transcendental bhāva is perfectly compatible with the Supreme Lord and is a subject of acintya-bhāva as its play is in the supramundane realm beyond the conditioned intellect.

Acintya-bhāva will occupy the heart of a devotee only upon his sincere invitation and is cultivated by single-minded śuddha-bhakti alone. In one’s heart, one should remain rapt in meditation upon the sthāyi-bhāva and sāmagrī-bhāvas appropriate to oneself. In time, by sincere endeavour upon the path of bhakti, one will realize acintya-bhāva. Only then can one evoke the eternally perfect akhaṇḍa-rasa, unbroken incessant spiritual mellow, within oneself that will lead one ever closer to Him.”

Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, which gāḍhasaṁskāra, profound impression, is relevant to becoming ‘rapt in meditation’?”

Gosvāmī, “My son, entangled by material nature, you have been caught in the cycle of repeated births and deaths, working out the accrued reactions of your karma. In this mechanism, two types of saṁskāraprāktana, of past lives, and ādhunika, of the present life—have helped to frame your mental constitution, temperament, and contemplations. Originally, your soul possessed a pure consciousness and nature that have become polluted. However, now your previous spiritually pious deeds have led you to seek saintly association and execute devotional service thus forming a powerful new saṁskāra that will uproot the polluted material saṁskāras and gradually allow your original pure consciousness to take its rightful place once more. The deeper the gāḍha-saṁskāra of devotional service sinks in, the stronger the presence of acintya-tattva will be felt in the heart, thus causing you to become ‘rapt in meditation’ in your sthāyi-bhāva.”

Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, I am keen to understand what persons are worthy of successfully fathoming rasa-tattva?”

Gosvāmī, “Only those persons who are able to awaken acintyabhāva by the profound gāḍha-saṁskāra of bhakti, as just described, are eligible candidates for rasa-tattva. All others are barred. Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī writes in the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, 5.79:

vyatītya bhāvanā-vartma yaś camatkāra-bhāra-bhūḥ
hṛdi sattvojjvale bāḍhaṁ svadate sa raso mataḥ

“‘On the basis of bhāva, sthāyi-bhāva is established like a monument of breathtaking beauty and wonder. It is relished in a heart that is illuminated and cleansed by pure goodness. This is rasa.’”

Vrajanātha, “Which persons are considered unfit for rasa? To instruct an unfit person upon hari-nāma is a nāmāparādha, similarly, to reveal the subtleties of rasa to an undeserving person is a gross aparādha. Gurudeva, kindly prevent us from doing so, as we are already in a lost condition.”

Gosvāmī, “The practice of vairāgya whilst rejecting śuddhabhakti is in truth phalguvairāgya, false renunciation. Similarly, the pursuit of jñāna whilst rejecting śuddha-bhakti is śuṣka-jñāna, dry empirical mental speculation. Kṛṣṇa-bhakti-rasa is the greatest treasure of spiritual life and must be very well protected from unworthy plunderers, just as valuable gems are always carefully guarded from thieves. The phalgu-vairāgīs, show-bottle renunciants; śuṣka-jñānīs, dry empiricists; phalgu-nyāyīs, false rhetoricians; karmīs, fruitive workers; viṣayīs, gross sensual materialists; māyāvādīs, impersonalists and monists, are opposed to śuddhabhakti and are thus amongst the unworthy.”

Vrajanātha, “Gurudeva, we are so fortunate to hear these wonderful instructions from you. We will try to follow them sincerely.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I maintain my family by reciting and lecturing on the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, which is actually a treatise on rasa. Is it therefore an aparādha to earn money by reading Śrīmad Bhāgavatam to the ordinary public?”

Gosvāmī, “Indeed! The Bhāgavatam is an excellent text and the crown jewel of all scriptures being the mature nectarean fruit of the entire Vedic literature. Simply abide by its espousals, especially this particular verse of the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, 1.1.3:

muhur aho rasikā bhuvi bhāvukāḥ

“‘O devotees who are thoughtful experts on the science of rasa, O devotees who are the relishers of rasa, kindly continue even after liberation to savour the sublime and nectarean fruit of the Vedas, known as the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam.’

“According to this edict, the only eligible candidates for rasa-tattva are the devotees who are bhāvuka, thoughtful and expert, and the rasikā, relishers of rasa. No other person is permitted access. Therefore my son, immediately abandon this method of earning your living. You are a thirsty searcher for rasa, do not commit further aparādha against rasatattva. The Vedas, Taittirīya Upaniṣad, 2.7, declare: …raso vai saḥ… ‘Rasa is personified in Kṛṣṇa.’ The scriptures offer several options for earning one’s living, follow their bona fide advice, but stop lecturing and reading the Bhāgavatam for monetary gain. If you find a rasikā audience, certainly read the Bhāgavata Purāṇa to them with great jubilation, but without expectation of taking a fee, a donation, etc.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, you have saved me from the clutches of a terrible aparādha—but how shall I counter the aparādha I have already committed?”

Gosvāmī, “That aparādha will not remain. Entreat rasatattva guilelessly, and surely you will be exonerated from your aparādha. Do not worry about it any longer.”

Vijaya, “Gurudeva, I now feel that I should rather maintain this body by some low profession than reveal the intricacies of rasatattva to an undeserving person and wrongfully earn my living.”

Gosvāmī, “Dear sons, you are blessed! Kṛṣṇa has accepted you as His devotees, otherwise how could you have developed so much determination in the culture of bhakti! You are residents of Navadvīpa-dhāma and Śrī Gaurāṅga has mercifully inspired you from within by His potency.”

Thus ends the Twenty-eight chapter of the Jaiva-dharma entitled:
Further Consideration of Rasa-tattva, Part Two: Mukhya-rati, Principal Attachment

Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Twenty Seven
Jaiva Dharma - Bhaktivinoda ThakuraJaiva Dharma - Chapter Twenty Nine

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