The two Bābus conclusion regarding Paṇḍita Bābājī’s teachings on rasa
Carefully meditating on the topics they had heard from the lips of Paṇḍita Bābājī, Naren Bābu and Anand Bābu could not sleep. Mallik Mahāśaya was practicing kumbhaka in another kuṭira. Bābājī had mercifully trained him in that practice. Anand Bābu and Naren Bābu began to talk between themselves.
Naren Bābu said, “Anand Bābu! I cannot believe at all that the propensity for bhakti is separate from the propensity for sense enjoyment as stated by the Brāhmācārya. Whatever instructions Paṇḍita Bābājī has given have completely impressed me. I don’t feel that the human being has a separate propensity because he’s conditioned. The inherent occupation of the soul (which acts in a liberated state) acts in the capacity of the mind’s function in the conditioned state. Therefore the soul’s attachment is turned into aversion to God and acts in the form of attachment for sense gratification. I’m convinced that the dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, and mādhurya we see in worldly behavior is a transformation of vaikuṇṭha-rasa.”
Naren Bābu’s proper conclusion regarding svargīya-prema
“Everyone praises the character of those who have a heavenly nature and who live in this world as pious people. A servant who displays unalloyed devotion for his master and considers the master’s benefit as his own, a friend who considers his friend’s happiness and distress as his own, a son who dedicates his life to his father, and a wife who gives her life for the happiness of her husband—such pious people are respected by everyone as heavenly beings. Therefore, whatever Paṇḍita Bābājī said about the rasa of worldly relationships, known as svargīya-rasa, is completely scientific and reasonable.
“We have read in many novels that some extremely devoted wife sacrificed even her life for the lord of her heart. By reading about her character so much devotion awakens for her! The relationship between man and woman is based on the body. When the body is finished, where will that love be reposed? One living entity is male and the other is female—but I don’t feel this state remains eternally; for the difference between man and woman is simply based on the body, not on the soul. Therefore the love between man and woman can remain only until death. If, like the Vedāntists, we accept transmigration and residence in heavenly planets and believe that the satisfaction of that sincere love is revived in that state, still loving relationships between man and woman cannot exist in the completely liberated state. Therefore I’m ready to believe that it is definitely true that that love is temporary as Paṇḍita Bābājī said.”
Naren Bābu’s proper conclusion regarding vaikuṇṭha-prema
“There is no doubt that vaikuṇṭha-prema is eternal. Prema is the most palatable of all things in the world—even the most unfortunate people accept this. Comte and other dry speculators accept that prema is the embodiment of all bliss. Mādhurya-prema is superior to dāsya, sakhya, and vātsalya. This can be understood by seeing the nature of that prema. Had there not been a most excellent prema called vaikuṇṭha-prema, then prema would not be eternal. There is no doubt that attaining that prema, which is the natural life of the living entity, is the ultimate goal.”
Anand Bābu said, “According to Bābājī’s instruction, vaikuṇṭha-prema is the only goal of human life. Svargīya-prema can never be the goal because it’s temporary. So what to speak of pārthiva–prema.”
Naren Bābu refutes the Brahmo philosophy
(1) Bhāva is not dependent on reason
“Brāhmācārya has said that although bhāva is superior, still, unless it’s controlled by reason, it will be abominable. Just see what a mistake he has made. If bhakti is the embodiment of bhāva, then why will it be controlled by reasoning, which is blind and lame. If bhāva rushes towards Vaikuṇṭha, then reasoning will definitely try to hold it back within the material world. Then, as reasoning restrains bhakti, how can one experience Vaikuṇṭha? Anand Bābu! With reasoning abandon reasoning in spiritual matters.”
(2) Devotion to one’s father is not devotion
“Brāhmācārya has said that when the Lord is addressed as Father, then vātsalya-rasa is manifest; but in the heart an indescribable feeling is awakened for the all-pervading Lord, which can be called a loving propensity. Anand Bābu, I can’t say why the Ācārya likes such blind reasoning! Why don’t we say the propensity to love one’s father is the propensity for bhakti? If the loving propensity is reposed on the father of one’s material body, then that is the propensity of svargīya-rasa. But if the same is reposed on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then that is vātsalya of vaikuṇṭha-rasa—with faith in this all one’s desires are fulfilled. Besides, the all-pervading Lord means Bhagavān, who is full with all opulences. When this relationship is firmly established, those opulences will be hidden and sweetness will manifest.”
Expressing sorrow for the Brahmo preceptor
“It can be concluded that in the living entity’s natural perfection of spiritual attachment, relationships like vātsalya and sakhya are employed in Kṛṣṇa’s service. Bābājī has explained only vaikuṇṭha-rasa. After reading Ācārya Mahāśaya’s conclusion, it appears he is unfortunate. He appears to be fond of śānta-rasa rather than vātsalya and sakhya, so I fail to understand how he’ll make progress in the science of God.”
The two Bābu’s taste for conjugal rasa
“Anand Bābu! The rationalists may despise it, but I hanker for worshiping the Lord, who is filled with sweetness, in the transcendental mellow of conjugal rasa. What is your mood?”
Anand Bābu said, “Naren Bābu! Whatever you’ve said is as valuable as the most precious diamond. I also have an intense thirst for the conjugal rasa.”
Speaking in this way the night passed and morning arrived. Most of that day they passed in their regular activities.
Paṇḍita Bābājī again discussesthe science of vaikuṇṭha-rasa
As on the previous day, they all went in the evening to Paṇḍita Bābājī’s maṇḍapa. After Haridāsa Bābājī humbly reminded Paṇḍita Bābājī about the previous night’s talk, Paṇḍita Bābājī began speak, “Lord Gaurāṅga’s associate, Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī, has written two books—Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu and Śrī Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi—in which he has taught the complete science of vaikuṇṭha-rasa to the world. By reading these two books one may elaborately understand the science of rasa. As these books are so voluminous it is difficult for less intelligent persons to quickly understand their purport. Because of their voluminous nature, most people prefer to hear that subject matter in brief. I dare not describe the entire contents of those books. I will tell the main points of those books in a nutshell. Vaiṣṇavas who don’t see other’s faults will certainly forgive me for the pride born from describing this unlimited ocean of rasa. I’m servant of the Vaiṣṇavas, to execute their order is my life’s main business.”
Because they are eternal, Vaikuṇṭha and the Supreme Brahman are full of variegatedness. Had they been without variety, they would have no existence
“Vaikuṇṭha-rasa is eternal, beginningless, and unlimited. In some places the Upaniṣads say that the Supreme Brahman is impersonal. In those places it should be understood that in the material world atomic particles of water, air, and fire are distinct by their respective material characteristics. Such material distinctions do not exist in the spiritual world. The Vedic literatures, however, never say there is no variety in the spiritual world. Existence and variety are simultaneously present everywhere. Whatever exists has a distinct characteristic by which it can be differentiated from other objects. If there’s no distinction, then that object may be said to have no existence. Had the Supreme Brahman been without variety, then how could it be differentiated from the material creation? If we can not say that the Supreme Brahman is different from creation, then the creator and creation becomes one. Then hope, faith, fear, reasoning, and all kinds of knowledge become nonexistent.”
Brahman is the boundary and covering of Vaikuṇṭha
“In order to differentiate Vaikuṇṭha from the material creation, some distinct characteristic is required. Although Vaikuṇṭha is the absolute truth, it is wonderful by variety. Vaikuṇṭha is fully spiritual—beyond material nature. Impersonal Brahman means the covering region of Vaikuṇṭha. It is the nondifferentiated dividing boundary where material variegatedness ends and before Vaikuṇṭha variegatedness begins.”
Eternal variegatedness establishes the difference between the Lord and the various living entities
“The Supreme Brahman and the living entities reside in Vaikuṇṭha. In Vaikuṇṭha the constitution of God is eternally established by variegatedness, and the living entities eternally reside in their spiritually perfect bodies. The variegatedness there does not allow one living entity to merge with another, nor does it give an opportunity for the living entities to merge with the Lord. This variegatedness establishes mutual distinctions, situations, and relationships. Variegatedness cannot be said to be something beyond Bhagavān. Sudarśana cakra is variegatedness in the form of the Lord’s device. That is the first power of the Lord’s energy.”
The power of the variegated potency is of three kinds—sandhinī, samvit, and hlādinī
“The Lord’s inconceivable energy displays its power in the form of variegatedness such as the Lord’s body, the living entity’s body, the situation of both, and the form of the spiritual realm.
“The power of the variegated energy is of three kinds: sandhinī, samvit, and hlādinī. From the potency of sandhinī, all existence is manifest. The existence of the body, death, time, association, ingredients, etc. are all made of sandhinī. All relationships and feelings are manifest from samvit. All rasa is manifest from hlādinī. Existence as well as relationship and feeling all culminate in rasa. Those who don’t accept variety, the impersonalists, are dry. Variety is the life of enjoyment.”
The world is full of matter and impure while Vaikuṇṭha is spiritual and pure
“Let us finish one topic right now. Vaikuṇṭha is cinmaya, or spiritual, the living entity is spiritual, Bhagavān is spiritual, their relationship is spiritual, activities there are spiritual, and all the results are spiritual. What have you understood? As the material world is made of material elements, the spiritual world is similarly made of spiritual substance. What is cit? Variegated matter, subtle matter, or is it the opposite of matter? It is none of these. Cit is the ideal element. As much as cit is pure, matter is impure.”
The meaning of cit—knowledge attained by samādhi, the ātmā, and his body
“When referring to cit, it is immediately compared to knowledge. How can that be? Our knowledge is based on matter, is that the case with cit?—No. If pure knowledge is obtained from the ātmā through samādhi, then one can relish knowledge related to cit. It is not that only ātmā is meant by the word cit. The ātmā’s constitution, or body, is made of cit. The inconceivable energy eternally manifests a formation of ingredients named cit. From that formation, the abode, the bodies, and other paraphernalia eternally manifest in Vaikuṇṭha. The ātmā belongs to Vaikuṇṭha, that is why the characteristics of cit accompany the ātmā in this world and reflect the substance named matter.
“Therefore the substance cit is more subtle and palatable than matter, subtle matter, matter in any capacity, or the opposite of matter, nirviśeṣa.”
Cit, or consciousness, is of two types—pratyag and parag
“Cit and consciousness are one substance. One should know a little about the word caitanya. Caitanya is of two kinds—pratyag and parag. When Vaiṣṇavas are absorbed in prema, at that time pratyag caitanya, or internal knowledge, arises. When one’s absorption in prema is broken, he then comes to his external senses and parag caitanya arises. Parag caitanya is not called cit, but it is called a shadow of cit.
“In the liberated state we have a spiritual form. In the conditioned state we have a form of indistinct matter and spirit. In the liberated state vaikuṇṭha-rasa is enjoyed, and in the conditioned state it should be sought after. We have discussed the enjoyable rasa in that state (but with perverted form).”
An introduction to the five rasa—śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, and mādhurya
“All cit substance is full of śānta-rasa. According to the relationship, rasa is of five kinds. Śānta–rasa is the first. In śānta-rasa there are a few bhāvas, or feelings, like shelter at the Lord’s feet, cessation of all material distress, and distaste for anything other than Bhagavān. When dry impersonalism or the Brahman conception is finished, śānta-rasa awakens. Sanaka, Sanātana, Sananda, and Sanat-kumāra were impersonalists at first, then they surrendered to the Lord and became absorbed in śānta-rasa. Sthāyī-bhāva, vibhāva, anubhāva, and sañcārī-bhāva are present in śānta-rasa, but as yet, not manifest. In śānta-rasa, sthāyī-bhāva is always present in the form of rati, yet being unnourished, it doesn’t develop into prema.
By good fortune rasa increases and the second platform of rasa, dāsya, is awakened. In this stage, as the devotee feels “The Lord is my master,” an intimate attachment appears which nourishes the loving relationship. Affection, or rati, of sthāyī-bhāva is nourished in this rasa in the form of prema. The Lord and the living entity thus accept a reciprocal relationship with the Lord as master and the living entity as servant.
The third rasa is sakhya. The affection of sthāyī-bhāva flourishes in this rasa from the stage of prema into pranaya, love. Awe and reverence of the master-servant relationship is left behind and faith becomes strong.
The fourth rasa is vātsalya. Affection in this rasa crosses beyond prema and pranaya and attains sneha. In this rasa, faith is further enriched in strength.
The fifth rasa is mādhurya. Affection, or rati, of sthāyī-bhāva in this rasa crosses beyond prema, pranaya, and sneha and develops into māna, bhāva, rāga, and ultimately mahābhāva. In this rasa, the strength of faith increases so much that the Lord and the devotee become one in heart and soul.”
The various apartments of Vaikuṇṭha and the location of the rasas in the various apartments
“The five rasas are all present in Vaikuṇṭha. The outer apartment of Vaikuṇṭha is full of opulence. The inner apartment is full of sweetness. Lord Nārāyaṇa resides in the opulent apartment, and Lord Kṛṣṇa resides in the sweet apartment. The apartment of sweetness has two subdivisions—Goloka and Vṛndāvana.
“Śānta and dāsya are always present in the apartment of opulence. Sakhya, vātsalya, and mādhurya are eternally present in the apartment of sweetness.
“According to the living entity’s inclination, he reposes and enjoys in the appropriate apartment.”