Prema Pradipa – Tenth Ray

Consideration of rati—rati is the root of rasa

Rasa doesn’t arise without the mixing of these four bhāvas—sthāyī-bhāva, anubhāva, vibhāva, and sañcārī-bhāva.

“First, one must consider sthāyī-bhāva. In the act of evoking rasa, the bhāva which is prominent is called sthāyī-bhāva. Rati itself is sthāyī-bhāva, because when rati gains taste it is rasa. When rati is supported by vibhāva, anubhāva, and sañcārī-bhāva, it becomes rasa. On their own, vibhāva, anubhāva, and sañcārī-bhāva do not become rasa. Vibhāva is the cause which awakens rasa. Anubhāva is the activity which awakens rasa. Sañcārī-bhāva is that which supports the awakening of rasa. Therefore rati is the root of rasa, vibhāva is the cause, anubhāva is the activity, and sañcārī-bhāva is the support. These conditions are common for the five kinds of rasas: namely, śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, and mādhurya.”

Consideration of rati (1) Three different symptoms are full of bhāva, full of

eagerness, and full of desire

“What is rati? The answer—sthāyī-bhāva. Nothing is understood! Rati is a favorable expression of full eagerness and jubilation. The ātmā’s first function is rati. The ātmā is full of knowledge. Therefore its function is to discriminate. It is of two kinds—one is thoughtful and the other is full of rasa. When thoughtful discrimination is nourished, all branches of knowledge are revealed. When discrimination full of rasa is manifest, it is called rati. The symptoms of rati are that it is favorable, or full of feelings which serve the purpose of the worshipable Lord; it is full of joy, or full eagerness related to the worshipable Lord; and it is full of eager desire, or full of strong desire to please the worshipable Lord.”

Consideration of rati (2) The origination of the endeavor for rasa is called rati, not ruci

“The beginning of the soul’s first endeavor for rasa is called rati. Some people call the beginning of that endeavor ruci, but this is not befitting because the origin of the ātmā’s endeavor for rasa with knowledge is called ruci. The origin of the endeavor for pure rasa is called rati. The origination of the endeavor for pure knowledge is called vedanā. Because other bhāvas are supported by rati and can exist in the act of awakening rasa, rati is called sthāyī-bhāva. In vaikuṇṭha-rasa one’s spontaneous self attachment is called sthāyī-bhāva. In svargīya-rasa one’s mental attachment is the sthāyī-bhāva. That is why ordinary word jugglers have described this rati as jubilation of the mind. In pārthiva-rasa that which makes the senses jubilant, that rati is known as sthāyī-bhāva.

“Out of the five relationships beginning with śanta and dāsya, as each is adjoined to bhāva, the hidden rati is manifest and gradually illuminates into prema, sneha, pranaya, māna, rati, rāga, anurāga, and ultimately mahābhāva. With the nourishment of rati the desired rasa is nourished.”

The differences of viṣaya and āśraya, which are two kinds of ālambana within vibhāva

Vibhāvas are of two kinds—ālambana and uddīpana. Āśraya is that which possesses rati. Viṣaya is the object of one’s rati. Although the Absolute Truth is one, there are different examples in the different rasas. Lord Nārāyaṇa is the example in the rasa of opulence. Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the example in the rasa of sweetness. With the help of śṛṅgara-rasa, I will give one example. Kṛṣṇa and His devotees are examples of ālambana. In the case of Kṛṣṇa’s attachment for His devotee; the āśraya is Kṛṣṇa and the viṣaya is the devotee. And in the case of the devotee’s attachment for Kṛṣṇa, the viṣaya is Kṛṣṇa and the āśraya is the devotee.”

Uddīpana within vibhāva

Uddīpana is all the qualities of āśraya and viṣaya. Particularly, uddīpana is the qualities of viṣaya which attract rati. Śrī Kṛṣṇacandra’s qualities, pregnant with sweetness, are unlimited and boundless. Living entities are enchanted by those qualities. Those qualities are the uddīpana of the living entity’s attachment to Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇacandra is also attracted by the devotees’ qualities such as their affection. All those qualities are the uddīpana of Kṛṣṇa’s attachment. This bhāva related to the manifestation of one’s attachment is subservient to vibhāva.”

Conjugal rasa is of two varieties—svakīya and pārakīya—which should not be discussed in this assembly

“In śṛṅgāra-rasa, Kṛṣṇa is the puruṣa, or enjoyer, and all devotees are strī, or the enjoyed. Kṛṣṇa is the husband and the devotees are His wives. Regarding svakīya and pārakīya, these are confidential truths which should be privately learned at the feet of one’s spiritual master. If I explain this topic in the assembly, it could be harmful for the unqualified devotees. Higher truths cannot be attained unless one is situated on a higher platform. Just as higher knowledge gradually arises in all scientific literature, likewise, confidential truths are attained in devotional literatures by proper qualification.”

One is not qualified in any rasa other than one’s own

“One who is a devotee in śānta-rasa trembles while addressing the Lord as friend. One who is a devotee in vātsalya-rasa hesitates to address the Lord as husband. One who is a servant in the conjugal rasa of svakīya is completely unable to display māna, or anger, and other moods of the vāmya devotee. Great rasikas like Jayadeva know how much Kṛṣṇa becomes subservient in proportion to the devotees’ qualification. You are also rasika-bhaktas, therefore I will not speak more on this subject. Other than the basic topics of rasa-tattva, I will not enter into subtle examples. Regarding vibhāva, I’ll explain up to the point of Kṛṣṇa becoming the ālambana, or shelter, as husband and paramour and the devotees are of three types—svakīya, pārakīya, and sādhāraṇā. All these subjects will be particularly known by studying Ujjvala-nīlamaṇi.”


“There are two kinds of anubhāvas: (I) āṅgika and (II) sātvika. Some persons describe sātvikaanubhāva as an independent limb. In fact, the essence will be the same.

(1) Āṅgika anubhāva is of three varieties:

(A) alaṅkāra, ornaments of emotional love;
(B) udbhāsvara, external manifestations of emotional love; and
(C) vācika, verbal manifestations of emotional love.

(A) Alaṅkāra is of three kinds:(1) aṅgaja, in relation to the body; (2) ayatnaja, in relation to the self; and (3) svabhāvaja, in relation to nature.

(1) Aṅgaja anubhāva is of three kinds:(a) bhāva, ecstasy; (b) hāva, gestures; and (c) helā, negligence.

(2) Ayatnaja anubhāva is of seven kinds:(a) śobhā, beauty; (b) kānti, luster; (c) dīpti, brilliance; (d) mādhurya, sweetness; (e) pragalbhatā, impudence; (f) audārya, magnanimity; and (g) dhairya, patience.

(3) Svabhāvaja anubhāva is of ten kinds:(a) līlā, pastimes; (b) vilāsa, enjoyment; (c) vicchitti, breaking off; (d) vibhrama, puzzlement; (e) kila-kiñcita; (f) moṭṭāyita; (g) kuṭṭamita; (h) vivvoka, neglect; (i) lalita, charm; and (j) vikṛta

This ends the description of (A) alaṅkāra anubhāvas.

(B) There are five kinds of udbhāsvaras:(1) veśa-bhūṣāra śaithilya, slackening of the belt and a dropping of clothes and hair; (2) gātra-moṭanam, bodily contortions; (3) jṛmbhā, yawning; (4) ghrānasya phullatvam, trembling of the front portion of the nostrils; and (5) niḥśvāsa-praśvāsa, heavy breathing.

(C) There are twelve kinds of vācika anubhāvas:(1) ālāpa, (2) vilāpa, (3) samlāpa, (4) pralāpa, (5) anulāpa, (6) upalāpa, (7) sandeśa, (8) atideśa, (9) apadeśa, (10) upadeśa, (11) nirdeśa, and (12) vyapadeśa.

This concludes the description of (I) āṅgika anubhāvas.

(II) There are eight types of sātvika anubhāvas:(1) stambha, being stunned; (2) sveda, perspiring; (3) romāñca, hairs standing on end; (4) svarabhaṅga, choking; (5) vepathu, trembling; (6) vaivarṇya, change in the bodily color; (7) aśru, crying; and (8) pralaya, devastation.

Consideration of the difference between āṅgika and satvika anubhāvas

“Unless the subtle difference between aṅga and satva is understood by consideration, the above mentioned divisions will never make sense. Citta is the director of all aṅgas. The perversion of citta is called satva. In the state of satva, as bhāvas manifest and pervade the limbs, then by consideration of the place of their origination, those bhāvas are called satvika vikāra. But all āṅgika bhāvas awaken in every limb and shine. Satvika vikāras awaken in every satva. All āṅgika vikāras awaken in the āṅgika bhāvas. It takes time to understand these subtle divisions.”

Thirty-three sañcārī-bhāvas

“Just as sthāyī-bhāva and vibhāva are two main divisions related to rasa, similarly anubhāva is understood to be one main division. As anubhāva is one division, in the same way all sañcārībhāvas are also one division. The thirty-three varieties are as follows: (1) nirveda, indifference; (2) viṣāda, moroseness; (3) dainya, meekness; (4) glāni, a feeling that one is in a faulty position; (5) śrama, fatigue; (6) mada, madness; (7) garva, pride; (8) śaṅkā, doubt; (9) trasa, shock; (10) āvega, intense emotion; (11) unmāda, craziness; (12) apasmāra, forgetfulness; (13) vyādhi, disease; (14) moha, bewilderment; (15) mṛti, death; (16) ālasya, laziness; (17) jāḍya, invalidity; (18) vrīḍā, shame; (19) avahittha, concealment; (20) ṛti, remembrance; (21) vitarka, argument; (22) cintā, contemplation; (23) mati, attention; (24) dhṛti, forbearance; (25) harṣa, jubilation; (26) autsukya, eagerness; (27) augrya, violence; (28) āmarṣa, anger; (29) asūyā, jealousy; (30) cāpalya, impudence; (31) nidrā, sleep; (32) supti, deep sleep; and (33) prabodha, awakening.”


“These sañcārī-bhāvas may also be called vyabhicārī-bhāvas. Rati of sthāyī-bhāva is nourished by all of these. If sthāyī-bhāva is compared to the ocean, then these sañcārī-bhāvas may be compared to waves. Just as waves time to time quickly rise and expand the ocean, in the same way sañcārī-bhāvas expand rasa by repeatedly dunking the rasa sādhaka’s rati. These sañcārībhāvas rush specially towards sthāyī-bhāva and are therefore called vyabhicārī-bhāvas.”

Sañcārī-bhāvas nourish rati

“All sañcārī-bhāvas are special ecstasies situated in the heart. These thirty-three ecstasies naturally arise in the heart. When one awakens a conjugal relationship with Kṛṣṇa they are sañcārī-bhāvas of conjugal rasa. Those various ecstasies are of contradictory natures. It is not that all ecstasies act at the same time. Sañcārī-bhāvas awaken according to which kind of rasa is functioning. Sometimes it is nirveda, and sometimes mada. Sometimes it is ālasya, and sometimes prabodha. Sometimes it is viṣāda, and sometimes harṣa. Sometimes it is moha, and sometimes mati. Unless these sañcārī-bhāvas awaken, how will rati be nourished?”

Rati mixed with one’s relationship is prema

“Now you will come to understand that rati in the form of sthāyī-bhāva is like a hero. The related vibhāva is the hero’s throne. Anubhāva, in the form of activities, is the hero’s power. And sañcārī-bhāvas are the soldiers. Five divisions of rasas manifest according to the different relationships. Rati is like the indivisible root of the science of rasa. When rati is alone it is called rati, but when it is joined with one’s relationship it becomes prema. As rati attains vibhāva when it takes shelter with one’s relationship, similarly, as rati transforms into the appropriate prema when it joins with one’s relationship. As that rasa flourishes, the sādhaka leaves aside other rasas. According to the rasa in which one advances, that rasa is beneficial and best. This is the consideration on the constitution of the science of rasa.”

A comparative study of rasa with impartial consideration, as well as a consideration on śāntarasa

“With impartial consideration, dāsya-rasa is superior to śānta-rasa. Sakhya-rasa is superior to dāsya-rasa. Vatsalya-rasa is superior to sakhya-rasa, and mādhurya-rasa is superior to vātsalyarasa. This comparison is seen with impartial consideration. In śānta-rasa, rati alone is present; vibhāva and sañcārī-bhāva are, as yet, undeveloped. In that state, having given up māyā, the sādhaka is spiritually situated and observed to be nearly impersonal, like unseen matter. Though it is a sort of liberation, the fruit of liberation is not enjoyed. Unseen rati is impotent like an imaginary flower in the sky. For the superior sādhaka, those results are truly insignificant. However much the Brahmo sādhaka glorifies that position, the Vaiṣṇava knows it is no better that the womb.”

Consideration of dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, and mādhurya rasas

“When vibhāva is added, then dāsya-rasa is awakened. Dāsya-rasa is of two kinds—siddhadāsya and unnati-garbha. In siddha-dāsya, dāsya is the limit. In unnati-garbha-dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, and mādhurya rasas germinate.

“In this way sakhya is of two kinds—siddha and unnati-garbha. In siddha-sakhya, rati, prema, and pranaya are found to be steady. In unnati, vātsalya and conjugal feelings germinate.

Vatsalya is always siddha. Vatsalya does not turn into any other rasa. When sakhya is nourished, it becomes vātsalya or mādhurya. Although vātsalya is one form of culmination, it is inferior to mādhurya. In mādhurya-rasa, pranaya, māna, sneha, etc. are not reckoned. They are completely independent.”

One must know rasa-tattva by relishing it with Śrī Gurudeva

“O saintly Vaiṣṇavas! I have briefly explained the science of rasa. Only by speaking some words, more cannot be said on this topic. Rasa is something to be relished. One cannot understand rasa just by hearing. When you relish that pure rasa, then you know the feelings that arise. One can never express that with words. If anyone present has not relished rasa-tattva, he should take shelter of a suitable guru, confidentially relish rasa, and realize this science. I’m unable to say any more. Offering unlimited obeisances at the feet of the Vaiṣṇavas, I stop here.”

Anand Bābu and Naren Bābu attain the Vaiṣṇava platform

Pleased by Paṇḍita Bābājī’s nectarean words, all the Vaiṣṇavas exclaimed, “Sādhu! Sādhu!” and went to their own residences. After hearing Bābājī Mahāśaya’s talk, Anand Bābu and Naren Bābu became most eager to drink the nectar of rasa. They both took shelter of Yogi Bābājī’s feet to receive further instruction on rasa. What they received from the feet of Śrī Guru is too confidential to describe. As a result of his previous activity, Mallik Mahāśaya became a master in the yoga-śāstra. But he could not understand the science of rasa at all.