Śrī Kṛṣṇa-saṁhitā – Chapter 2 – Descriptions of the Lord’s Energies
atraiva tattva-vijñānaṁ jñātavyaṁ satataṁ budhaiḥ
śakti-śaktimato bhedo nāsty eva paramātmani
We will now consider the science of Vaikuṇṭha, which should be known by the learned. In the beginning it should be understood that there is no difference between the energy and the energetic. Nothing is gained if we consider the Absolute Truth as devoid of energy, therefore it is the duty of swan-like persons to accept the existence of His energies. Energy is never a truth separate from the energetic Supreme Lord. Although proper examples to illustrate the Absolute Truth are unavailable in this material world, indirect examples are sometimes found. Just as fire and heat cannot exist separately, the Absolute Truth and His energies do not exist separately.
tathāpi śrūyate ‘smābhiḥ parā śaktiḥ parātmanaḥ
acintya-bhāva-sampannā śaktimantaṁ prakāśayet
The Absolute Truth is manifested through the inconceivable superior energy of the energetic Absolute Truth, who is the source of the puruṣāvatāras and is realised through samādhi. If heat was separated from fire, then due to an absence of energy, fire would not exist. Similarly, if energy was separated from the Absolute Truth, then the Absolute Truth would not exist.
sā śaktiḥ sandhinī bhūtvā sattājātaṁ vitanyate
pīṭha-sattā svarūpā sā vaikuṇṭha-rūpiṇī sate
The superior energy of the Absolute Truth is realised in three different aspects—sandhinī, samvit, and hlādinī. The first manifestation of the Absolute Truth is sat (sandhinī), cit (samvit), and ananda (hlādinī). “In the beginning there was only the Supreme Brahman, then, after manifesting His energies, He became known as sat-cid-ānanda,”—this kind of misconception arises due to consideration of material time and should not applied on the Absolute Truth. It is understood by swan-like people that the sat-cid-ānanda form of the Lord is beginningless, endless, and eternal. The sandhinī energy manifests the existence of the eternal abode, name, form, associates, relationships, features, and foundation of the Absolute Truth. The superior energy of the Lord has three potencies, namely cit, or spiritual, jīva, or marginal, and acit, or material. The spiritual potency, cit, is His internal potency. The marginal and material potencies are separated. These potencies are considered according to the proportion of the energy manifest. Vaikuṇṭha is the abode of the spiritual potency of the sandhinī aspect of the superior energy.
kṛṣṇādyākhyābhidhā-sattā rūpa-sattā kalevaram
rādhādyā-saṅginī-sattā sarva-sattā tu sandhinī
The names of Kṛṣṇa manifest from the abhidhā–sattā, the body of Kṛṣṇa manifests from the rūpa–sattā, and the lovers of Kṛṣṇa like Rādhā manifest from a mixture of the rūpa-sattā and saṅginī-sattā.
sandhinī-śakti-sambhūtāḥ sambandhā vividhā matāḥ
sarvādhāra svarūpeyaṁ sarvākārā sad aṁśakā
All kinds of relationships manifest from the sandhinī aspect. The sandhinī aspect of the Lord is the source of all spiritual manifestations and features.
samvid bhūtā parā śaktir jñāna-vijñāna rūpiṇī
sandhinī-nirmite sattve bhāva-saṁyojinī satī
The samvit aspect of the superior energy consists of knowledge and its practical application (jñāna and vijñāna). When samvit interacts with the manifestations of the sandhinī aspect, all emotions appear.
bhāvābhāve ca sattāyāṁ na kiñcid apy lakṣyate
tasmāt tu sarva-bhāvānāṁ samvid eva prakāśinī
Without the presence of emotions, existence would be unknown. Therefore, all truths are illuminated by samvit. All the emotions of Vaikuṇṭha are created by the samvit aspect of the spiritual potency.
samvid-rūpā mahā-devī kāryākārya vidhāyinī
All relationships in Vaikuṇṭha have been established by Samvit-devī, who is the director of action and inaction. The different rasas, such as śānta and dāsya, and the respective activities in those rasas have been established by samvit.
viśeṣābhāvataḥ samvid brahma-jñānaṁ prakāśayet
viśeṣa-saṁyutā sā tu bhagavad bhakti-dāyinī
If one does not accept the quality of variegatedness, then Samvit-devī manifests for him the impersonal feature of the Absolute Truth. The living entity then takes shelter of impersonal knowledge of Brahman. Therefore, impersonal knowledge of Brahman is only the impersonal consideration of Vaikuṇṭha. For one who accepts the quality of variegatedness, Samvit-devī manifests the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The living entity then accepts the devotional service of the Lord.
hlādinī-nāma-saṁprāptā saiva śaktiḥ parākhyikā
mahābhāvādiṣu sthitvā paramānanda-dāyinī
When the spiritual potency of the superior energy interacts with the hlādinī aspect, it creates attachment up to the state of mahā-bhāva, in which She (hlādinī) bestows the topmost ecstasy.
rādhikā sattva-rūpeṇa kṛṣṇānanda-mayī kila
This hlādinī is Śrī Rādhikā, who is the energy of the energetic, who possesses the topmost loving sentiments, and who is half of the Supreme Lord’s form. She expands into the indescribable forms of Kṛṣṇa’s inconceivable happiness.
sakhya aṣṭa-vidhā bhāvā hlādinyā rasa-poṣikāḥ
That Rādhā gives pleasure to Kṛṣṇa. She is the embodiment of mahā-bhāva. There are eight varieties of emotions that nourish the rasa of hlādinī. They are known as Rādhā’s eight sakhīs.
tat tad bhāva-gatā jīvā nityānanda-parāyaṇāḥ
sarvadā jīva-sattāyāṁ bhāvānāṁ vimalā sthitiḥ
When the hlādinī energy of the living entities realises a portion of the spiritual hlādinī by the association of devotees and the mercy of the Lord, then the living entities become eternally happy and attain the stage of pure eternal sentiments while remaining individual entities.
hlādinī sandhinī samvid ekā kṛṣṇe parātpare
yasya sāṁśa-vilāseṣu nityā sa tritayātmikā
The sandhinī, samvit, and hlādinī energies are eternally situated in Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; that is, existence, knowledge, and attachment are in perfect harmony in Him. Yet these three energies are also present in His personal expansions in His Vaikuṇṭha pastimes.
etat sarvaṁ svataḥ kṛṣṇe nirguṇe ‘pi kilādbhutam
cic-chaktir ati-sambhūtaṁ cid-vibhūti svarūpataḥ
Although many variegated qualities are eternally manifest in Śrī Kṛṣṇa, He wonderfully remains nirguṇa, devoid of material qualities, because His qualities are the interactions of His spiritual potency and are forms of His spiritual opulence.
jīva-śakti-samudbhūto vilāso ‘nyaḥ prakīrtitaḥ
jīvasya bhinna-tattvatvāt vibhinnāṁśo nigadyate
After concluding the consideration on the sandhinī, samvit, and hlādinī aspects of the spiritual potency of the superior energy, I will now explain the sandhinī, samvit, and hlādinī aspects of the marginal potency of the superior energy. The living entities are created by the will of the Lord and by the inconceivable superior energy of the Lord. The living entities have been awarded minute independence, so they are classified as separated truths and their activities are said to be separated from the Lord’s activities.
paramāṇu samā jīvāḥ kṛṣṇārka-kara-varttinaḥ
tat teṣu kṛṣṇa-dharmāṇāṁ sadbhāvo vartate svataḥ
Kṛṣṇa is like the spiritual sun, and the living entities are like the atomic particles of that incomparable sun’s rays. Therefore, all the qualities of Kṛṣṇa are naturally present in the living entities.
samudrasya yathā binduḥ pṛthivyā reṇavo yathā
tathā bhagavato jīve guṇānāṁ vartamānatā
Although it is inappropriate to compare the greatness of the Lord’s qualities with the ocean or the earth, if we do consider His qualities in this way, then the qualities of the living entities appear like drops of the ocean or dust particles of the earth.
hlādinī sandhinī samvit kṛṣṇe pūrṇatamā matā
jīve tv aṇu svarūpeṇa draṣṭavyā sūkṣma-buddhibhiḥ
The three aspects—hlādinī, sandhinī, and samvit—are fully manifest in Śrī Kṛṣṇa, but they are also minutely present in the living entities. This is understood by persons endowed with fine intelligence.
svātantrye vartamāṇe ‘pi jīvānāṁ bhadrakāṅkṣiṇām
śaktayo ‘nugatāḥ śaśvat kṛṣṇecchāyāḥ svabhāvataḥ
All living entities have independence that was awarded by the Lord, yet those who desire auspiciousness naturally remain under the subordination of Kṛṣṇa.
ye tu bhoga-ratā mūḍhās te svaśakti-parāyaṇāḥ
bhramanti karma-mārgeṣu prapañce durnivārite
Those who are unable to recognize what is auspicious and what is inauspicious and who engage in sense gratification do not accept subordination under the spiritual potency and thus live independently. They traverse the path of fruitive activities while wandering in the material world, which is difficult to leave after once entering.
tatraiva karma-mārgeṣu bhramatsu jantuṣu prabhuḥ
paramātma svarūpeṇa vartate līlayā svayaṁ
For those living entities who traverse the path of fruitive activities, the Lord, as His pastime, accompanies them in the form of the Supersoul.
eṣā jīveśayor līlā māyayā vartatedhunā
ekaḥ karma-phalaṁ bhuṅkte cāparaḥ phala-dāyakaḥ
The pastimes of the Lord and the living entities appear mundane to the conditioned souls. The living entities enjoy the results of their fruitive activities, while the Supersoul awards those results.
jīva-śakti-gatā sā tu sandhinī sattva-rūpiṇī
svargādi-lokam ārabhya pārakyaṁ sṛjati svayam
When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with sandhinī, the upper heavenly planets are created.
karma karma-phalaṁ duḥkhaṁ sukhaṁ vā tatra vartate
pāpa-puṇyādikaṁ sarvam āśāpāśādikaṁ hi yat
Fruitive activities, the results of fruitive activities, distress, happiness, sin, piety, and all desires are also created by this interaction with sandhinī. The functions of the subtle bodies are also created by this interaction. Svarloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka, and Brahmaloka are all created by this interaction. Even the lower hellish planets are understood to be created by this interaction with sandhinī.
jīva-śakti-gatā samvid īśa-jñānaṁ prakāśayet
jñānena yena jīvānām ātmany ātmā hi lakṣyate
When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with samvit, it manifests knowledge of the Absolute Truth. By this knowledge a living entity realises the Supersoul. This knowledge is distinct from and inferior to impersonal knowledge of Brahman, which is manifested by the interaction of the spiritual potency of the superior energy with samvit.
vairāgyam api jīvānāṁ samvidā sampravartate
kadācil layavāñcā tu prabalā bhavati dhruvam
Renunciation, in the form of neglecting māyā, manifests from this interaction of samvit with the marginal energy. Sometimes the living entities consider the happiness of realising the self as insignificant and the happiness of realising the Supersoul as relatively superior, and they therefore desire to merge with the Supersoul.
jīve yāhlādinī śaktir īśa-bhakti-svarūpiṇī
māyā niṣedhikā sā tu nirākāra-parāyaṇā
When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with hlādinī, it manifests devotional service to the Supreme Lord. This devotional service nullifies the material conception of the Lord and establishes Him as nirākara, or formless.
cic-chaktir ati-bhinnatvād īśa-bhaktiḥ kadācana
na prīti-rūpam āpnoti sadā śuṣkā svabhāvataḥ
The rati, or attachment, of the spiritual potency is different from this type of devotional service of the Supreme Lord. Therefore, this devotional service of the Lord is naturally dry, or without rasa, and is not based on love.
kṛta-jñatā-bhāva-yuktā prarthanā vartate harau
saṁsṛteḥ puṣṭi-vāñcā vā vairāgya-bhāvanāyuta
The prayers of those who perform this type of devotional service are mixed with gratefulness, therefore this cannot be called unmotivated devotional service. Rather, their prayers are filled with desires for material advancement or renunciation.
kadācit bhāva-bahulyād aśru vā vartate dṛśoḥ
tathāpi na bhaved bhāvaḥ śrī kṛṣṇe cid-vilāsini
Although sometimes tears are shed out of emotion while executing this type of devotional service, such persons’ emotions for Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who enjoys spiritual pastimes, do not arise.
vibhinnāṁsa-gatā līlā kṛṣṇasya paramātmanaḥ
jīvānāṁ baddha-bhūtānāṁ sambandhe vidyate kila
Does this mean that there is no superior emotion in the hearts of the conditioned souls than this form of devotional service? Certainly there is. Just as Śrī Kṛṣṇa performs His pastimes in Vaikuṇṭha with the eternally perfect living entities, He certainly performs pastimes in relationship with the conditioned souls.
cid-vilāsa-ratā ye tu cic-chakti-pālitāḥ sadā
teṣām ātma-yogena brahma-jñānena vā phalam
Those who consider the happiness of the hlādinī aspect of the marginal potency as insignificant and consider the impersonal Brahman as incomplete understand that the pastimes of Kṛṣṇa with the spiritual potency of the superior energy are more relishable, so they join those pastimes. They are qualified for receiving the highest happiness. They are servants of the Lord and are under the protection of the spiritual potency. They derive no fruits whatsoever from impersonal knowledge of Brahman or yoga. In this context, yoga refers to devotional service (as described above in verses 28-31), as practiced by the living entities. Regarding impersonal knowledge of Brahman, please refer to verse 9 of this chapter. Therefore, when yogis and jñānīs become fortunate, they engage in spiritual activities.
māyā tu jaḍa-yonitvāt cid dharma-parivartinī
āvaraṇātmikā śaktir īśasya paricārikā
After completing discussions on the marginal potency, I will now discuss the sandhinī, samvit, and hlādinī aspects of māyā–śakti, the external potency. All inert matter is manifested from the external potency of the superior energy. Therefore, this māyā potency converts spiritual characteristics into material characteristics. Māyā, the external potency, covers the living entities, so she is the mother of illusion and a maidservant of the Supersoul.
cic-chakteḥ pratibimbatvān māyayā bhinnatā kutaḥ
praticchāyā bhaved bhinnā vastuno na kadācana
After carefully studying the nature of māyā, it is concluded to be the most inferior potency in the whole creation, because all of the living entities’ inauspiciousness is created by māyā. If māyā did not exist, there would be no degradation of the living entities in the form of aversion to the Lord. Therefore, many people doubt whether māyā is the Lord’s energy, because the Supreme Lord is all-auspicious and unaffected by sin. Those who understand the Supreme Lord as the supreme doer and controller do not accept any truth that is contrary to Him; they thus accept māyā as the material potency of the Supreme Lord’s spiritual energy. The external potency, which is a reflection or shadow of the spiritual potency, is not independent. By the will of the Lord, māyā is the perverted reflection of, and therefore certainly subordinate to, the Lord’s spiritual potency. In this context one should not accept the māyāvādī philosophers’ meanings of bimba (reflection), pratibimba (reflected image), and praticchāyā (shadow).
tasmān māyā-kṛte viśve yad yad bhāti viśeṣataḥ
tat tad eva praticchāyā cic-chakter jala-candravat
If we consider the existence of māyā, we can conclude that this world is the shadow of Vaikuṇṭha, which is created by the spiritual potency of the superior energy of the Lord and is full of variegatedness. The example of the moon in water is applicable to this shadow [the material world]. But this world is not false in the same way as the moon in the water is false. As māyā is in fact a potency of the superior energy, whatever is created by her is also a fact.
māyayā bimbitaṁ sarvaṁ prapañcaḥ śabdyate budhaiḥ
jīvasya bandhane śaktam īśasya līlayā sadā
As far as the work of the maidservant [Māyā] is concerned, learned people say that this material world is her creation. This material existence is able to bind the living entities as part of the Lord’s pastimes (please see verses 22-23 of this chapter).
vastunaḥ śuddha-bhāvatvaṁ chāyāyāṁ vartate kutaḥ
tasmān māyā-kṛte viśve heyatvaṁ paridṛśyate
Just as the original, pure condition of an object is not manifest in its shadow, we do not find the pleasantness of the spiritual world in the material world, which is created by māyā, rather we find the perverted quality, distress.
sā māyā sandhinī bhūtvā deśa-buddhiṁ tanoti hi
ākṛtau vistṛtau vyāptā prapañce vartate jaḍā
When the external potency of the superior energy interacts with sandhinī, it spreads conceptions of nationalism. This mentality is found only in this world. The symptoms of this conception are spread through forms and their expansions. If one could ascertain Vaikuṇṭha by one’s thoughts, then the material forms and their expansions would certainly be useful. But the science of Vaikuṇṭha is beyond the realm of material space, time, and argument and is realised through samādhi. Actually all the forms and expansions that are seen in Vaikuṇṭha, the abode of transcendental pastimes, are all spiritual and auspicious. It should be known that the forms and expansions of the material world, the perverted reflection of the spiritual world, are forever devoid of bliss.
jīvānāṁ martya-dehādau sarvāṇi karaṇāni ca
tiṣṭhanti parimeyāṇi bhotikāni bhavāya hi
The activities and bodies of the conditioned living entities are material and limited and are meant for performing work and enjoying its results. They are created by the sandhinī aspect of the external potency. If one tries to understand words like “tiny” and “atomic” in descriptions of the living entities and “greatness” in descriptions of the Supreme Lord in terms of material space, then one will not attain knowledge of the Absolute Truth.
sambid-rūpā mahā-māyā liṅga-rūpa-vidhāyinī
ahaṅkārātmakaṁ cittaṁ baddha-jīve tanoty aho
When the external potency of the superior energy interacts with samvit, it creates the subtle body of conditioned souls in the form of intelligence and false ego. The constitutional position of a pure living entity is beyond the gross and subtle bodies. The samvit aspect of the external potency is known in the scriptures as nescience. Due to this nescience, the gross and subtle bodies of the living entities are created. When pure living entities reside in Vaikuṇṭha, the first knot of nescience, in the form of false ego, does not entangle them. Pure living entities cannot remain steady after giving up spiritual activities. Therefore, as soon as the living entities become situated in their own happiness through the minute independence given by the Lord, they become shelterless and are compelled to take shelter of Māyā. On account of this, pure living entities have no shelter other than Vaikuṇṭha. The living entities of Vaikuṇṭha are very insignificant, like fireflies in comparison to the powerful sunlike Lord. As soon as the living entity leaves Vaikuṇṭha, he is simultaneously awarded a subtle body and thrown into the material world, created by Māyā. All manifestations of the sandhinī, samvit, and hlādinī aspects of the marginal potency are mixed with māyā as soon as the living entity leaves the shelter of Vaikuṇṭha. When one considers material existence as his own, this is called false ego. Absorption in this false ego is the function of the heart, cultivating material sense objects through the heart is the function of the mind, and realisation through this cultivation is called material knowledge. The mind, being superior to the senses, manifests as the functions of the senses in their association. When the impression of contact between the senses and sense objects is established within, it is protected by the strength of remembrance. When one cultivates those protected memories by following the process of elaborating and condensing them, then whatever one conjectures is called argument. By this argument, knowledge of sense objects and related items is acquired.
sā śaktiś cetasau buddhir indriye bodha-rūpiṇī
manasy eva smṛtiḥ śaśvat viṣaya-jñāna-dāyinī
The samvit aspect of the external energy creates the intelligence of the heart, the feelings of the senses, the remembrance of the mind, and the knowledge of sense objects.
viṣaya-jñānam evasyān māyikaṁ nātma dharmakaṁ
prakṛter guṇa-saṁyuktaṁ prākṛtaṁ kathyate janaiḥ
Knowledge of sense objects is completely mundane. It has nothing to do with one’s constitutional duties. It is called material knowledge because it is connected with the qualities of the material world.
sā māyā hlādinī prītir viṣayeṣu bhavet kila
karmānanda svarūpā sā bhukti-bhāva-pradāyinī
The hlādinī aspect of the external energy manifests as attachment for material objects. That attachment spreads the conception of enjoyment in the form of happiness derived from fruitive activities. Attachment for the material world, the endeavour for material prosperity, and the desire for sense gratification all naturally arise from this attachment to sense objects. In order to maintain life peacefully, the four castes—brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, and śūdra—are established according to people’s natural characteristics, and the four āśramas—gṛhastha, vānaprastha, brahmacārī, and sannyāsī—are established according to people’s position. According to necessity, constitutional and conditional occupational duties are ascribed. When the upper and lower planets, which are created by the sandhinī aspect of the marginal potency (see verses 24-25), are connected with the results of these duties, then they become the object of the fruitive workers’ hopes or fears. It is to be mentioned at this point that the samvit and hlādinī aspects of the marginal potency, being almost covered by the samvit and hlādinī aspects of the external potency, time to time manifest renunciation and knowledge of the self, which are ultimately overcome by māyā due to the absence of spiritual activities.
yajñeśa bhajanaṁ śaśvat tat prīti-kārakaṁ bhavet
trivarga-viṣayo dharmo lakṣitas tatra karmibhiḥ
The Supersoul is perceived at this point as Yajñeśvara, the Lord of sacrifice. People of the material world try to please Him by their activities, and they worship Him by sacrifices. The name of this religion is trivarga, or dharma, artha, and kāma. But there is no possibility of mokṣa, or liberation, by this path.
Thus ends the Second Chapter of Śrī Kṛṣṇa-saṁhitā, entitled
“Descriptions of the Lord’s Energies.”
May Lord Kṛṣṇa be pleased.