vyāsena vraja-līlāyāṁ nitya-tattvaṁ prakāśitam
prapañca-janitaṁ jñānaṁ nāpnoti yat svarūpakam
Śrī Vyāsadeva has explained the eternal truth while describing the pastimes of Vraja. This eternal truth is beyond the realm of material knowledge (see 2.41-43).
jīvasya siddha-sattāyāṁ bhāsate tattvam uttamam
dūratā rahite śuddhe samādhau nirvikalpake
This supreme truth shines in the living entity’s pure existence. This pure existence is attainable by conditioned souls through pure absolute samādhi, which vanquishes all impediments. There are two types of samādhi—artificial and absolute. The devotees accept natural samādhi as absolute and fabricated samādhi as artificial, regardless of whatever explanations the jñānīs have. The soul is spiritual, therefore the qualities of self-knowledge and knowledge of other objects are naturally present in him. By the quality of self-knowledge, one can realise one’s self. By the quality of knowing other objects, one can realise all other objects. Since such qualities are the constitutional nature of a living entity, where is the doubt that natural samādhi is absolute? A living entity does not require to take shelter of another instrument to understand the supreme object. Therefore, this samādhi is faultless. But when one takes shelter of Sāṅkhya-samādhi, which entails faulty or unnatural activities, it is known as artificial samādhi. The constitutional activities of the soul are called natural samādhi, for the mind has no jurisdiction in these activities. Natural samādhi is easy and free from misery. If one takes shelter of this samādhi, then the eternal truth is easily realised.
māyā-sūtasya viśvasya cic-chāyatvāt samāṇatā
cic-chaktyāviṣkṛte kārye samādhāv api cātmani
The pastimes of Vraja have been perceived and described through the process of natural samādhi, in the form of self-realisation. Although the names, forms, qualities, and activities that are used to describe vraja-līlā appear almost mundane, that is only because the material world created by Māyā is similar to its origin, Vaikuṇṭha. Actually the soul’s natural samādhi is a function of the spiritual potency. Whatever is perceived through natural samādhi is the ideal example for the material world, not imitation.
tasmāt tu vraja-bhāvānāṁ kṛṣṇa-nāma-guṇātmanām
guṇair jāḍyātmakaiḥ śaśvat sādṛśyam upalakṣyate
For this reason, Kṛṣṇa’s names, qualities, and forms have a similarity to material names, qualities, and forms.
svaprakāśa svabhāvo ‘yaṁ samādhiḥ kathyate budhaiḥ
ati-sūkṣma-svarūpatvāt saṁśayāt sa vilupyate
Self-realisation comes through self-illumination. Learned scholars call self-realisation samādhi. This is very subtle. If there is a tinge of doubt, it is practically lost. Many truths such as the living entity’s faith in his own existence, the living entity’s eternal existence, and the living entity’s relationship with the Absolute Truth are realised through natural samādhi. “Do I exist or not?” “Will I exist after death?” “Do I have any relationship with the Absolute Truth?” If one develops such argumentative doubts on the truth, then his natural samādhi becomes contaminated with prejudices and gradually forgotten. The truth can never be lost; it can only be forgotten. The soul’s eternality and the existence of the Absolute Truth cannot be established by argument, because argument has no entrance into the realm beyond the material world. Self-realisation is the only way to establish these truths. The devotees of Kṛṣṇa always realise their eternal home, Vaikuṇṭha, and their eternal occupation, service to Kṛṣṇa, through natural samādhi, or self-realisation. When a spirit soul practices natural samādhi, he progressively realises the following subjects: (1) his self, (2) the insignificance of the self, (3) the supreme shelter, (4) the relationship between the shelter and the sheltered, (5) the beauty of the qualities, activities, and form of the shelter, (6) the relationships amongst the sheltered, (7) the abode of the shelter and the sheltered, (8) the absolute time factor, (9) the various moods of the sheltered, (10) the eternal pastimes between the shelter and the sheltered, (11) the energies of the shelter, (12) the advancement and degradation of the sheltered by the energies of the shelter, (13) the misidentification of the degraded sheltered, (14) the cultivation of devotional service for restoration of the degraded sheltered, and (15) the degraded sheltered regaining their constitutional position through devotional service. These fifteen along with other inconceivable truths are realised. The more material knowledge is mixed with one’s natural samādhi, the less one can realise the truth. The more one is able to advance on the path of natural samādhi by controlling argument, which is like the minister of material knowledge, the more one can open the storehouse and acquire indescribable spiritual truths. The storehouse of Vaikuṇṭha is always full. Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇacandra, the lovable object of all, constantly invites the living entities through the open door of that storehouse.
vayaṁ tu saṁśayaṁ tyaktvā paśyāmas tattvam uttamam
vṛndāvanāntare ramye śrī-kṛṣṇa-rūpa-saubhagam
We have destroyed the doubts that hinder samādhi, and we are seeing within the inner circle of Vaikuṇṭha the beautiful form of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is the topmost personality of Vṛndāvana. If our samādhi would have been polluted with material knowledge and if the propensity for argument, after giving up mundane knowledge, would have intruded in the process of samādhi, then we would not have accepted the quality of variegatedness of the spiritual world and we would have proceeded only up to impersonal Brahman. But if material knowledge and argument was to some extent subdued and intruded only to some extent into the process of samādhi, then we would have accepted the eternal differentiation between the soul and the Supersoul, and nothing more. But since we have totally submerged this wicked propensity of doubting, we have attained complete realisation of the beautiful form of the supreme shelter.
nara-bhāva-svarūpo ‘yaṁ cit-tattva-prati-poṣakaḥ
snigdha-śyāmātmako varṇaḥ sarvānanda-vivarddhakaḥ
Now we are going to explain the form and beauty of the Lord, which are realised through samādhi. The beautiful form of the Lord, which nourishes all spiritual subjects, is like a human form (please see 2.17-18). There is no difference between the energy and its effect in the absolute realm, nevertheless the sandhinī aspect of the spiritual potency with the help of variegatedness arranges the effect so perfectly that it has created a wonderfully unprecedented scene. There is no comparison to that beauty, either in this world or in the spiritual world. Since there is no predominance of time and space in the Absolute Truth, the significance or greatness of the Lord’s form does not increase His glories, rather, because His form is beyond the material realm, it is always wonderful and complete. Therefore, we are seeing the body of the Lord, which is the source of all beauty, through samādhi. The Lord’s form is even more sweet. The more deeply one sees the form of the Lord through the eyes of samādhi, the more one sees an indescribable pleasing blackish form. Perhaps that spiritual form is pervertedly reflected as mundane blue sapphires, which give relief to the mundane eyes, or mundane new clouds, which increase the happiness of the burning mundane eyes.
śikhi-piccha-dharaḥ śrīmān vana-mālā-vibhuṣitaḥ
pītāmbaraḥ suveśāḍhya vaṁśīnyasta sukhāmbujaḥ
yamunā-puline ramye kadamba-talam-āśritaḥ
The sandhinī, samvit, and hlādinī potencies wonderfully merge in the beautiful threefold-bending form of the Lord. The Lord’s ever-pleasing eyes increase the beauty of His form. Perhaps the lotus flowers of this world are modelled after His eyes. The crown of the Lord’s head is wonderfully decorated. Perhaps the peacock feathers of this world are modelled after those decorations. A garland of spiritual flowers increases the beauty of the Lord’s neck. Perhaps a forest flower garland of this world is modelled after that transcendental garland. Spiritual knowledge, which is manifested from the samvit aspect of the spiritual potency, covers the waist of the Lord’s form. Perhaps the lightning bolt of a new cloud of this world is modelled after that covering. Spiritual jewels like Kaustubha and other ornaments beautifully decorate His form. The instrument by which the Lord sweetly invites or spiritually attracts all is known as the flute. The flute of this world, which creates various rāgas, or musical modes, might be modelled after that flute. This inconceivable form of the Lord is seen under the kadamba tree, which is the form of hairs standing on end in ecstasy, on the bank of the Yamunā, which is the form of spiritual liquid.
etena cit-svarūpeṇa lakṣaṇena jagat-patiḥ
lakṣito nandajaḥ kṛṣṇo vaiṣṇavena samādhinā
Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda and Lord of the spiritual and material worlds, is seen with the above-mentioned spiritual symptoms by the Vaiṣṇavas through samādhi. A swan-like person should not disregard these spiritual features because they have shadow forms in this material world. All these spiritual features combine to further enhance the splendor of the Lord. One will see more subtle features of the Lord by entering deeper into samādhi, and one will see less variety and qualities of the Lord by entering shallower into samādhi. Unfortunate people who are enamoured by material knowledge are unable to see the spiritual form of the Lord and the variegatedness of the spiritual world even though they attempt to see Vaikuṇṭha through samādhi. For this reason, their spiritual cultivation is limited and their treasure of love is very meagre.
ākarṣaṇa-svarūpeṇa vaṁśī-gītena sundaraḥ
mādaren viśvam etad vai gopīnām-aharan-manaḥ
Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇacandra, who is realised through samādhi, kidnaps the hearts of the gopīs and maddens the spiritual and material worlds with the sound of His flute, which is the form of all attraction.
jāty-ādi-mada-vibhrāntyā kṛṣṇāptir durhṛdāṁ kutaḥ
gopīnāṁ kevalaṁ kṛṣṇaś cittam ākarṣaṇe kṣamaḥ
How can those whose hearts have been polluted by social prestige attain Kṛṣṇa? The wicked pride of this material world has six causes—birth, beauty, qualities, knowledge, opulence, and strength. People who are overwhelmed by these six kinds of pride cannot take to the devotional service of the Lord. We are experiencing this everyday in our life. Persons who are polluted by the pride of knowledge consider the science of Kṛṣṇa very insignificant. While considering the goal of life, such people regard the happiness of Brahman to be superior to the happiness of devotional service. Persons who are devoid of pride attain the mood of gopas or gopīs to enjoy with Kṛṣṇa. The gopas and gopīs are the authorities in the science of Kṛṣṇa. The reason for using the word gopī in this verse is that in this book we are discussing the topmost rasa of conjugal love. Persons who are situated in śānta, dāsya, sakhya, and vātsalya rasas are also in the mood of Vraja, and they realise the transcendental mellows in relationship with Kṛṣṇa according to their respective moods. We are not going to elaborate on them in this book. Actually all living entities are eligible for the mood of Vraja. When one’s heart is filled with the mood of mādhurya, he attains Vraja in full perfection. Out of the five rasas, a person is naturally attracted to the rasa in which he has an eternal constitutional relationship with the Lord, and he should therefore worship the Lord in that particular mood. But in this book we have only described the living entity’s topmost mood of conjugal love.
gopī-bhāvātmakāḥ siddhāḥ sādhakās tad anukṛteḥ
dvividhāḥ sādhavo jñeyāḥ paramārtha-vidā sadā
Those who have attained the mood of the gopīs are called perfected beings, and those who imitate them are called practitioners. Therefore, the learned, who know the Absolute Truth, accept two types of sādhus—perfected beings and practitioners.
saṁsṛtau bhramatāṁ karṇe praviṣṭaṁ kṛṣṇa-gītakam
balād ākarṣayaṁś cittam uttamām kurute hi tān
We are now explaining the gradual process of sādhana for those in the mood of the gopīs. When the sound of Kṛṣṇa’s flute enters the ear of a living entity who is wandering throughout the material world, he is attracted by the sweet sound and becomes highly qualified.
puṁbhāve vigate śīghraṁ strī-bhāvo jāyate tadā
pūrva-rāgo bhavet teṣām unmāda lakṣaṇānvitaḥ
Sense gratification is the materialist’s primary anartha. When the sheltered give up the shelter, then they consider themselves the enjoyer of māyā. If the practitioner’s propensity for enjoyment is quickly destroyed, then he can again attain the shelter of those persons who are attached to conjugal rasa and consider himself a transcendental woman, to be enjoyed by the Lord. Gradually such persons develop pūrva-rāga to such a degree that they become almost mad.
śrutvā kṛṣṇa-guṇaṁ tatra darśakāddhi punaḥ punaḥ
citritaṁ rūpam anvīkṣya varddhate lālasā bhṛśam
By seeing pictures of Kṛṣṇa or by repeatedly hearing descriptions of Kṛṣṇa from persons who have seen Him, one’s greed for attaining Kṛṣṇa increases unlimitedly.
prathamaṁ sahajaṁ jñānaṁ dvitīyaṁ śāstra-varṇanam
tṛtīyaṁ kauśalaṁ viśve kṛṣṇasya ceśa-rūpiṇaḥ
When a living entity through natural knowledge experiences attraction for the Lord, this is known as hearing songs of Kṛṣṇa. Realising Kṛṣṇa after scrutinizingly studying descriptions of His form narrated in the scriptures by persons who have seen Kṛṣṇa is called hearing the qualities of Kṛṣṇa. Seeing Kṛṣṇa’s artistry within the world is called seeing Kṛṣṇa’s picture. This material world is the reflected shadow of spiritual variegatedness. Whoever has realised this is said to have seen Kṛṣṇa’s picture. In other words, a person becomes a Vaiṣṇava by three processes—seeing the Lord through natural knowledge, realising the Lord by studying the scriptures, and seeing the Lord through His artistry.
vraja-bhāvāśraye kṛṣṇe śraddhā tu rāga-rūpakā
tasmāt saṅgo ‘tha sādhunāṁ vartate vraja-vāsinām
Pure faith in Kṛṣṇa, who is the shelter of the moods of Vraja, is called pūrva-rāga or prāg-bhāva. When this faith awakens, one achieves the association of a devotee resident of Vraja. Association of the devotees is the cause for achieving Kṛṣṇa.
kadācid abhisāraḥ syād yamunā-taṭa-sannidhau
ghaṭate milanaṁ tatra kāntena sahitaṁ śubham
Such fortunate persons fix a love rendezvous with Kṛṣṇa and then gradually proceed towards the bank of the spiritual liquid Yamunā, where they meet their beloved.
kṛṣṇa-saṅgāt parānandaḥ svabhāvena pravartate
pūrvāśritaḥ sukhaṁ gārhyaṁ tat kṣaṇāt goṣpadāyate
By the association of Kṛṣṇa, they then naturally experience such transcendental happiness that the happiness of Brahman is considered insignificant before it. At that time the happiness of material family life becomes comparable to the water in the hoof-print of a calf before the ocean of love.
varddhate paramānando hṛdaye ca dine dine
ātmanāmātmani preṣṭhe nitya-nūtana-vigrahe
Thereafter, the Lord and soul of all souls, in His ever-fresh form, unlimitedly increases that ocean of bliss. The Lord, who is the shelter of all rasas, always appears wonderfully ever-fresh. In other words, the sheltered persons’ thirst for rasa increases and is never quenched. Through samādhi, great devotees have seen in the spiritual world five direct rasas, beginning with śānta, and seven indirect rasas, beginning with heroism and compassion. Since the material world is known as the reflected shadow of the Vaikuṇṭha world, all the imitation rasas of the material world must certainly be present in their pure forms in Vaikuṇṭha.
cid-ānandāsya jīvasya sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahe
yānuraktiḥ svataḥ siddhā sā ratiḥ prīti-bījakam
Now we will again deeply discuss the previously explained science of rati, attraction. Attraction is the seed of love and the principle asset for executing devotional service. The self-illuminated perfect attachment of a living entity for the sat-cid-ānanda Lord is called attraction. The naturally perfect propensity of attachment between spiritual identities is very strong between Kṛṣṇa and the living entities. This stage is called sthāyī-bhāva, permanent ecstatic moods, which is the goal of the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam, the ornamental literature of the paramahaṁsas.
sā ratī-rasam-āśritya varddhate rasa-rūpa-dhṛk
rasaḥ pañca-vidho mukhyaḥ gauṇaḥ sapta-vidhas tathā
This attraction is the subtle origin of rasa. Just as “one” is the origin in the process of counting numbers yet it remains present in subsequent numbers, similarly in the mature stages of prīti—such as prema, sneha, māna, and rāga—attraction remains present as the origin. Attraction is seen as the root in all the activities of prīti, while bhāva and various ingredients are seen as branches and subbranches. Therefore, attraction continually increases under the shelter of rasa. There are twelve direct and indirect rasas.
śānta-dāsyādayo mukhyāḥ sambandha-bhāva-rūpakāḥ
rasā vīrādayo gauṇāḥ sambandotthāḥ svabhāvataḥ
Śānta, dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, and mādhurya are the five direct rasas. Besides the five direct mellows, there are seven indirect mellows, known as hāsya (laughter), adbhuta (wonder), vīra (chivalry), karuṇa (compassion), raudra (anger), bībhatsa (disaster), and bhaya (fear). These seven indirect rasas arise from the five direct rasas. Until attraction mixes with a particular relationship, it remains in a neutral state and cannot act. But when attraction joins with a particular relationship, it begins to manifest. The emotions that are produced by this manifestation are the indirect rasas.
rasa-rūpam avāpyeyaṁ ratir bhāti svarūpataḥ
vibhāvair anubhāvaiś ca sāttvikair vyabhicāribhiḥ
When rati, attraction, takes the shape of rasa, it becomes more luminous by mixing with four other ingredients. Although attraction is present under the shelter of rasa, it cannot manifest without the ingredients. These ingredients are of four types—vibhāva (special ecstasy), anubhāva (subordinate ecstasy), sāttvika (natural ecstasy), and vyabhicārī (transitory ecstasy). Vibhāva is divided into the two categories ālambana (the support) and uddīpana (stimulation). Ālambana may be further divided into two—Kṛṣṇa and His devotees. The qualities and characteristics of Kṛṣṇa and His devotees are called uddīpana. Anubhāva is divided into three—alaṅkāra (ornaments of emotional love), udbhāsvara (external manifestations of emotional love), and vācika (verbal manifestations of emotional love). The twenty types of alaṅkāras, such as bhāva (ecstasy) and hāva (gestures), are categorised into three—aṅgaja (in relation to the body), ayatnaja (in relation to the self), and svabhāvaja (in relation to nature). Physical activities like jṛmbhā (yawning), nṛtya (dancing), and luṇṭhana (plundering) are known as udbhāsvaras (external manifestations of emotional love). There are twelve vācika anubhāvas, such as ālāpa and vilāpa. There are eight sāttvika-vikāras, such as stambha (being stunned), and sveda (perspiring). And there are thirty-three vyabhicārī-bhāvas, such as nirveda (indifference). Attraction requires the constant support of rasa and these ingredients to nourish one’s relationship up to mahā-bhāva.
eṣā kṛṣṇa-ratiḥ sthāyī bhāvo bhakti-raso bhavet
baddhe bhakti-svarūpā sā mukte sā prīti-rūpiṇī
This attraction for Kṛṣṇa is also known as sthāyī-bhāva and bhakti-rasa. Due to the conditioned souls’ relationship with the material world, their attraction takes the shape of devotional service. In the liberated souls in Vaikuṇṭha, attraction is eternally present in the form of prīti, or love.
mukte sā vartate nityā baddhe sā sādhitā bhavet
nitya siddhasya bhāvasya prākaṭyaṁ hṛdi sādhyatā
The gradual stages of the development of attraction up to mahā-bhāva, the manifestation of attraction under the shelter of direct and indirect rasa, and the unlimited ocean of sweetness created by the wonderful mixture of attraction with the above-mentioned ingredients are the eternal wealth of liberated souls and the goal for conditioned souls. You may ask what is the need for practicing devotional service if this spiritual blissful rasa is eternal. The answer is that the attraction of the living entities has become perverted and mundane. Therefore, one has to awaken pure attraction in one’s heart by practicing devotional service.
ādarśāc cinmayādviṣvāt saṁprāptaṁ susamādhinā
sahajena mahābhāgair vyāsādibhir idaṁ matam
Learned personalities like Vyāsadeva and we ourselves have seen through samādhi that the science of attraction is most relishable for the pure living entities. The qualities of the origin are somewhat reflected in its shadow. That is why the loving affairs of this material world are the most pleasing form of material enjoyment. But the attraction between male and female of this world is very insignificant and abominable when compared to spiritual attraction. As stated in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.33.39):
vikrīḍitaṁ vraja-vadhūbhir idaṁ ca viṣṇoḥ
śraddhānvito ‘nuśṛṇuyād atha varṇayed yaḥ
bhaktiṁ parāṁ bhagavati pratilabhya kāmaṁ
hṛd-rogam āśv apahinoty acireṇa dhīraḥ
“Anyone who faithfully hears or describes the Lord’s playful affairs with the young gopīs of Vṛndāvana will attain the Lord’s pure devotional service. Thus he will quickly become sober and conquer lust, the disease of the heart.”
mahā-bhāvāvidhir bhāvo mahā-rāsavadhiḥ kriyā
nitya-siddhasya jīvasya nitya-siddhe parātmani
We have thus described activities up to the rāsa dance and moods up to mahā-bhāva enjoyed between the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa and the eternally liberated living entities.
etāvaj jaḍa-janyānāṁ vākyānāṁ caramā gatiḥ
yadūrddhaṁ vartate tan no samādhau paridṛśyatām
Due to associating with matter, this is the limit that our words can describe. Whatever is beyond this can be known only through samādhi.
Thus ends the Ninth Chapter of Śrī Kṛṣṇa-saṁhitā, entitled “Achievement of the Lotus Feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa.”