Śrīman Mahāprabhura Śikṣā

Chapter Eleven
Śrī Kṛṣṇa Prīti-i Jīvera Sādhya

(Love for Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the Aim of the Jīva)

After compiling, studying and deliberating upon all the Vedas for hundreds of kalpas, Brahmā could not understand it. Mahādeva, the primeval lord of the Devas, who possesses omniscience and all yogika perfections, the master of the path of vairāgya, is continually searching for it. All the liberated jīvas constantly revere that object as the attainment of their own glory. That thing is the only true objective of all sādhana, and is the essential goal of human life according to all the śāstra – now, with a small ray of mercy from Mahāprabhu, who is most compassionate to the fallen, we will attempt to discuss prema. The Lord gave these teachings to Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmī concerning prema-tattva:

brahmāṇḍa bhramite kona bhāgyavān jīva
guru kṛṣṇa prasāde pāya bhakti latā bīja

mālī hañā kare sei bīja aropaa
śravaa kīrtana jale karaye secana

upajiyā bāḍe latā brahmāṇḍa bhedi yāya
virajā brahmaloka bhedi paravyoma pāya

tabe yāya tad upari goloka vndāvana
kṛṣṇa caraa kalpa vke kare ārohana

tāṅha vistārita hañā phale prema phala
iha mālī sece nitya śravaa kīrtanādi jala

yadi vaiṣṇava aparādha uhe hātī mātā
upare vā chiṇḍe tāra śukhi yāya pātā

tā‘te mālī yatna kari kare āvaraa
aparādha hastīra yaiche nā haya udgama

kintu yadi latāra sage uhe upaśākhā
bhukti mukti vāñcā yata asankhya tā‘ra lekhā

niidhācāra kuināṭi jīva hisana
lābha pūjā pratiṣṭhādi yata upaśākhā gaa

seka jala pāñā upaśākhā bāḍi yāya
stabdha hañā mūla śākhā bāṛite nā pāya

prathamei upaśākhā karaye chedana
tabe mūla śākhā bāṛi yāya vndāvana

prema phala pāki pae mālī āsvādaya
latā avalambi mālī kalpa-vka pāya

tāṅhā sei kalpa-vkera karaye secana
sukhe prema phala rasa kare āsvādana

ei ta’ parama phala parama puruṣārtha
yāṅra āge tṛṇa tulya cāri puruṣārtha

(“By the mercy of guru and Kṛṣṇa, some fortunate jīvas wandering in the universe attain the seed of the creeper of bhakti. Just like a gardener does, the seed must be planted and sprinkled with the water of śravaṇa and kīrtana. As it is cultivated, that creeper grow taller and penetrates the universe as well as the Virajā and Brahmaloka, finally reaching the spiritual sky. Then it goes further to Goloka Vṛndāvana where it climbs the desire-tree of the feet of Kṛṣṇa. There it expands and produces the fruit of prema. While he is here in this world, the gardener must constantly sprinkle it with the water of śravaṇa etc. If Vaiṣṇava aparādha arises, that ‘mad elephant’ will uproot or break the creeper, and its’ leaves will shrivel up. Thus, the gardener must protect it so that the elephant of offences does not appear. However, it is written that the limitless unwanted weeds of bhukti, mukti and other material desires also grow alongside the creeper. Conduct unbecoming those desiring perfection, politics and diplomacy, cruelty to other jīvas, greed, and the desire to be worshipped and famous are some of these unwanted weeds. These unwanted plants increase since they also get the water when it is sprinkled, and they inhibit the growth of the creeper. From the beginning, one must cut away all the unwanted weeds in order that the main creeper can grow and reach Vṛndāvana. When the fruit of prema is ripe, it is relished by the gardener, and by following that creeper He reaches the desire-tree of Kṛṣṇa. There, he blissfully serves that desire-tree while continually relishing the rasa of the fruit of prema. This supreme fruit is the ultimate goal of human life, in front of which, all the other four goals are insignificant.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 19.151-164)

This metaphor of Mahāprabhu has been described in payāra (prose) by Kavirāja Gosvāmī with immense erudition. If a jīva can understand the proper meaning of this payāra, and act accordingly, then he will become fortunate immediately. What is unattainable by studying piles of śāstra is quickly attained by understanding these twenty-eight lines. Since time immemorial, all jīvas have wandered in the universe, following the path of karma and āna. When the power of sukṛti increases, the inherent desire for bhakti become strong, and at that time, the jīva develops śraddhā for bhakti. From śraddhā, one takes shelter at the feet of the sādhu-guru. Following the instructions of the sādhu-guru, he properly sows this śraddhā in his heart, which is in the intrinsic form of the seed of the creeper of bhakti. Then the jīva becomes a gardener, sprinkling it with the water of hearing and chanting hari-nāma etc. The creeper grows and grows, penetrating the material universe, crossing the Viraja, the border of the spiritual world, and going beyond the non-differentiated abode of Brahman, it enters Paravyoma, the place replete with spiritual pastimes. At the time when it penetrates the universe, another thing is achieved – that is called kṛṣṇa-kṛpā (the mercy of Kṛṣṇa). In his spiritual form, the jīva is finite; while deliberating upon this, he rejects matter, then his inherent qualities are lost and the jīva endeavours to annihilate his own existence. At this time, Kṛṣṇa’s mercy helps the jīva, through the special power of the mercy of His devotees. This mercy is the powerful influence of the hlādinīśakti originating from the cit-śakti. At the time when māyā’s influence ceases, she proceeds to rescue the jīva from the annihilation of his spiritual variety and while he engages in sādhanabhakti, she appears in the form of bhāva. On the strength of this bhāva, the jīva achieves rati, and gradually begins to advance. Without the mercy of the hlādinīśakti, the jīva never becomes eligible to attain the goal of prema. By the strength of the hlādinīśakti, the jīva’s spiritual inclination pierces through the abode of Brahman and he can go to the spiritual sky. The upper division of the  spiritual sky is Goloka Vṛndāvana. There, the creeper of bhakti expands itself at the desire-tree of Kṛṣṇa’s feet and delivers the fruits of prema. Meanwhile, the gardener continues to sprinkle the water in the form of constantly hearing and chanting hari-nāma. At the time when the creeper sprouts and grows, the gardener has to be especially careful about a few things. Vaiṣṇava aparādha, namely violence, envy or criticism of sādhubhaktas sometimes arises, and like a mad elephant it tears up the creeper of bhakti, then it’s leaves dry up. Sometimes it uproots the creeper completely. At that time, the gardener should be especially careful so that this elephant-like offence does not arise. And another disturbance is that from time to time, along with the creeper of bhakti, weeds may also arise and continue to increase with the waters of hearing and chanting and they do not allow the main creeper to grow. Many kinds of weeds may appear – desires for material sense-pleasure, liberation, mystic powers, women, immoral activities, politics and diplomacy, as well as being mentally absorbed in useless things, violence to other jīvas, cruelty, deceit, the desire for position and fame, coveting wealth or puṇya etc. The gardener must be vigilant and chop down all these weeds as they begin to grow. In this way, the main creeper can pass beyond the material sphere and ascend to the transcendental abode of Vṛndāvana. The fruit of prema then ripens and falls, and the gardener relishes it with supreme bliss. This prema is the ultimate goal of human life and in comparison, the four divisions of dharma, artha, kāma and moka are as insignificant as straw.

Now we will briefly discuss the inherent nature of prema and its varieties. Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu states:

śuddha-sattva-viśeṣātmā prema-sūryaṁśu-sāmyabhāk
rucibhiś citta-māsṛṇya-krd asau bhāva ucyate

 (“When the heart becomes softened by ruci, that is known as bhāva. By nature it is the embodiment of śuddha-sattva and is like a ray of the sun of prema.” – Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, Pūrva Vibhāga 3.1)

samya masṛṇita-svānto mamatvātiśayakita
bhāva sa eva sāndrātmā budhai premā nigadyate

(“When bhāva is marked with more intensity, making the heart completely soft, and one feels a sense of possessiveness towards Kṛṣṇa, the wise describe this as prema.”– Prema-bhakti-lahīri 1)

The inherent nature of śuddha-sattva (pure goodness), which is comprised of intense and tender feelings of possessiveness towards Kṛṣṇa is called prema. That state known as samvit arises from the svarūpa-śakti, which manifests everything, and that is called śuddha-sattva. The sattva produced by the māyāśakti is not śuddhasattva, rather it is mixed sattva. The intense and tender bhāva of possessiveness towards Kṛṣṇa is the specific inclination of the hlādinīśakti coming from the cit-śakti.  When these two potencies combine, they give rise to the greatest and most amazing state within the jīva’s heart – this is viśuddha-prema (pure prema). In the material world, māyā’s samvit and hlādinī potencies combine and create mundane prema, which is only a detestable shadow of that pure spiritual prema.

The bhāva stemming from one’s intrinsic śuddha-sattva nature, along with its activities of tenderness are both perceived within prema. Bhāva means sthāyi-bhāva (permanent bhāva) whose initial manifestation is called rati (attachment). Thus Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta states:

sādhana bhakti haite māyā ratira udaya
rati gāḍha haite tā‘ra prema nāma kaya

prema vddhi krame nāma sneha māna praaya
rāga anurāga bhāva mahābhāva haya

(“Through sādhana-bhakti, rati arises. When rati becomes intense, it is called prema.  The names of prema as it progressively increases are sneha [affection], māna [pride], praaya [deep affection], rāga [attachment], anurāga [stronger attachment], bhāva [ecstasy], and mahābhāva [supreme ecstasy].” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 19.177-178)

Bhāva is said to be the sapling of prīti (prema), and it has been explained what type of state it manifests when it arises. Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta states:

ei nava prīty-aṅkura yāṅra citte haya
prākṛta-kṣobhe tāṅra kṣobha nāhi haya

 (“When these nine saplings of prīti appear in the heart, there is never any more agitation from mundane things.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.20)

 kṛṣṇa-sambandha vinā kāla vyartha nāhi yāya

 (“One should never waste time without ant connection to Kṛṣṇa.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.22)

 bhukti siddhi indriyārtha tāre nāhi bhāya

 (“One does not fear mundane pleasures, mystic perfections and objects of the senses.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.24)

 sarvottama āpanāke hīna kari māne

 (“Although they are the best of all, they think, ‘I am most fallen.’” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.26)

kṛṣṇa kṛpā karibena-dṛḍha kari’ jāne

(“They know with certainty that Kṛṣṇa will give His mercy.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.28)

 samutkaṇṭhā haya sadā lālasā-pradhāna

(“Their eagerness is characterised by their continuous desire to serve.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.30)

nāma-gāne sadā ruci laya kṛṣṇa-nāma

 (“They incessantly relish the chanting of the Name and always take kṛṣṇa-nāma.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.32)

kṛṣṇa-guṇākhyāne haya sarvadā āsakti

(“They are always attached to narrations about Kṛṣṇa’s qualities.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.34)

kṛṣṇa-līlā-sthāne kare sarvadā vasati

(“They constantly reside in those places connected to kṛṣṇa-līlā.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.36)

kantir avyartha-kālatvam viraktir māna-śūnyatā
āśābandha samutkaṇṭhā nāma-gāne sadā ruci
āśaktis tad-guṇākhyāne prītis tad-vasati-sthale
ity ādayo’ nubhāvāḥ syur jāta-bhāvakure jane
(Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, Pūrva Vibhāga, Rati bhakti 11)

“Tolerance, never wasting time, detachment, freedom from false pride, having firm hope, extreme enthusiasm, an inclination to always chant the Name, an attachment to describing Kṛṣṇa’s qualities, residing in that place where He performed His līlā etc.  – all these anubhāvas (preliminary physical symptoms of bhāva) are naturally manifest in a person at the first sprouting of the sapling of bhāva.”

This rati is the initial stage of prema, and prema is the intense stage of rati. Prema is like the sun and rati or bhāva is like it’s rays.  When rati appears, very small signs of sāttvikabhāva (ecstatic emotions) also manifest. Although rati appears in the mind of a bound jīva, it is actually an independent transcendental element, thus although it is self-manifested, it apparently shows itself as something which requires a cause to manifest and seems to be a function of the mind. In this world, rati may appear in two ways – from mercy stemming from Kṛṣṇa or Kṛṣṇa’s devotee, or born from the intensity of sādhana. Rati due to intense sādhana is generally seen in this world. Rati born of mercy is extremely rare. Again, rati born from intense absorption in sādhana is of two types – from vaidha-sādhana and from rāgānuga-sādhana.

Rati is an extremely rare substance. All the symptoms of rati seen in those persons who are mumukṣu (desiring liberation) or bubhukṣu (desiring material pleasures) etc. are only ratyābhāsa (a semblance of rati). This has two divisions – pratibimba-ratyābhāsa (a reflection of a semblance of rati) and chāyā-ratyābhāsa (a shadow of a semblance of rati). Upon observing all their symptoms, a person who is ignorant of tattva will claim that ratyābhāsa is actual rati.

Some persons are seen not to engage in sādhana, but it is observed that pure rati manifests in them. In all such cases, one should understand that their progress in a previous was interrupted for some reason. We should understand that when that obstacle has been removed, the result will manifest. If the activities of a person who has attained rati seem to be defective, but he is successful, one should not envy him. Actually the character of a person who has attained rati is faultless. Some of his minor activities may be seen as contravening social conduct, but in actuality, there is nothing objectionable in him. Such defects are only seen from the eyes of those persons of lower qualification who are attached to rules.

The active forms of rati are anubhāva (preliminary physical symptoms of bhāva) and the special ingredients of sañcāribhāva (transitory bhāva). When these mix with rati and it acquires intensity, it becomes prema, which then produces rasa.  The subject of rasa is discussed in the text, Kṛṣṇera Rasāmta Samudratva Vicāra (‘Deliberations Upon the Nectarean Ocean of Kṛṣṇa’s Rasa’). Our readers will understand that everything which has been spoken of on the subject of premarasa need not be repeated at this point.

There are two types of prema – kevala-prema (pure prema) and mahima-jñāna-yukta-prema (prema possessing awareness of reverence). Generally, from rāgānugā sādhana-bhakti, kevala-prema manifests. On the path of vidhi, the sādhanabhakta  usually achieves mahima-jñāna-yukta-prema, and he attains the liberation of sārṣṭi etc.

According to Śrīman Mahāprabhu’s nectarean teachings, kevala-prema is the greatest result. Prema has two divisions – bhāvottha (arising from bhāva) and prasādottha (arising from mercy). Bhāvottha is of two kinds – bhāva arising from vaidha and bhāva arising from rāgānugā.  Prasādottha prema is rare. Bhāvottha prema is more common. The gradual rise of bhāvottha prema is mentioned in Śrī Caitanya-caritāmta:

kona bhāgye kona jīvera śraddhā yadi haya
tabe sei jīva sādhu saga karaya

sādhu saga haite haya śravaa kīrtana
sādhana bhaktye haya sarvānartha nivartana

anartha nivtti haile bhakti niṣṭha haya
niṣṭha haite śravaṇādye ruci upajaya 

ruci bhakti haite haya aśakti pracura
aśakti haite citte janme kṛṣṇe prīty akura

sei rati gāḍha haila dhare prema nāma
sei prema prayojana sarvānanda-dhāma

(“If, by some good fortune, a jīva has śraddhā, then that jīva will certainly obtain sādhusaṅga. By hearing, chanting and engaging in sādhana-bhakti in the association of sādhus, all anarthas are removed. When anarthanivṛtti is there, then firm determination in bhakti appears, and from firm determination, a taste for hearing etc, awakens. From that inclination, deep attachment for bhakti arises, and from that attachment the sapling of prīti for Kṛṣṇa is born within the heart. When that rati becomes intense it is known as prema, and that prema is the ultimate goal and the abode of all divine bliss.” – Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.9-13)

yāṅra citte kṛṣṇa prema karaye udaya
tāṅra vākya, kriyā, mudrā vijneha na bujhaya

 (“Even the wise cannot comprehend the words, activities or symptoms of one within whose heart kṛṣṇa-prema has awakened.”– Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 23.39)

On this subject there is a kārikā:

ākara sannidhau lauha pravtto dṛśyate yathā
aor mahati caitanye pravtti prītir eva sā
pratiphalana-dharmatvāt baddha-jive nisargata
itareu ca sarveu rāgo’sti viayādiu
liga-bhagottarā bhakti śuddha-prītir anuttamā
tat pūrvam ātmānikepāt bhakti prītimayī satī

“Just as when a magnet is placed close to iron, it displays its inherent natural quality, similarly, the jīva endowed with finite consciousness, shows his inherent tendency when he is in proximity with Kṛṣna, who is infinite consciousness, because his svarūpalakṣaṇa (inherent nature) is pure prīti. This quality of rāga is naturally perfect in the spiritual world. The material world is merely a reflection of the spiritual world. The jīva has accepted unnatural qualities, and these mundane attributes are merely a reflection of transcendence. This gives rise to another kind of rāga towards the vulgar objects of this world, although rāga is produced from his innate nature. If the bound jīva does not destroy his subtle body, then he cannot achieve vastu-siddhi (eternal perfection in one’s spiritual form) and pure bhāva. After eliminating the subtle body, that bhakti which is seen is pure prīti. Before this, attempting to destroy his material nature and honouring his spiritual nature, he fully surrenders himself with bhakti, yet although that bhakti has prīti as a quality, it still does not have prīti as its very essence.”

The symptoms of this are described in the Śrī Caitanya-caritāmta:

rāgatmikā-bhakti mukhya vraja-vāsī jane
t
ā‘ra anugata bhaktira rāgānuga nāme

(“Rāgātmikā-bhakti is prominent amongst the residents of Vraja. That bhakti where one follows their example is called rāgānuga.” – Caitanya-caritāmta, Madhya-līlā 22.149)

 lobhe vraja-vāsīra bhāve kare anugati
śāstrayukti nahi māne rāgānugāra prakti

 (“Having that greed to follow the bhāva of the residents of Vraja, one does not consider the rules of śāstra, but follows rāgānuga, the path of natural love.” – Caitanya-caritāmta, Madhya-līlā 22.153)

 bāhya abhyantara ihāra dui ta’ sādhana
bahye sādhaka dehe kare śravaa kīrtana

(“Sādhana of this path is of two types – external and internal. Externally with his form as a sādhaka, he performs śravaṇa and kīrtana.” – Caitanya-caritāmta, Madhya-līlā 22.156)

māne nija siddha-deha kariya bhāvana
ratri dine kare vraje kṛṣṇera sevana

(“Internally, while contemplating his own siddha-deha, he renders service to Kṛṣna day and night.” – Caitanya-caritāmta, Madhya-līlā 22.157)

nijābiṣṭha kṛṣṇa pretha pāche ta’ lāgiya
nirantara sevā kare antarmanā hañā

(“Internally, he constantly renders service, following the personality he has chosen, who is very dear to Kṛṣṇa.” – Caitanya-caritāmta, Madhya-līlā 22.159)

(The kārikā continues:)

 kṛṣṇa-bahirmukhe sā ca viaya-prītir eva hi
sā caiva kṛṣṇa-sammukhyāt kṛṣṇa-prīti sunirmalā
raty ādi-bhāva-paryanta svarūpa-lakaa smtam
dāsya-sakhyādi-sambandhāt sa caiva rasatāṁ vrajet

 “The difference between viṣaya-prīti (love for mundane things) and kṛṣṇa-prīti is that when the same inclination is directed from matter towards Kṛṣṇa with pure bhāva, it becomes kṛṣṇa-prīti. When one is averse to Kṛṣṇa, and it is directed towards mundane sense-objects, then it is called jaḍa-prīti or viṣayāsakti (attachment to sense-objects). This prīti can be seen as the svarūpa-lakṣaṇa (intrinsic characteristic) from rati to mahābhāva. This sthāyi-bhāva appears in relation to dāsya etc. and attains the characteristics of rasa in conjunction with the ingredients of anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva etc.”

In our Śikṣāṣṭaka commentary (Sammodana-bhāṣya, verse 1), based on Śrī Jīva’s Prīti Sandarbha, it is written thus:

ullāsa-mātrādhikya-vyañjikā prītiḥ ratiḥ yasyāṁ jātāyāṁ tad-eka-tātparyam anyatra tucchatva-buddhiś ca jāyate.  mamatātiśayāvirbhāvena samṛddhā prītiḥ premā dāsya-rase lakṣyate. yasmin jāte tat-prīti bhaṅga-hetavo na prabhavanti. viśambhātmakaḥ premā praṇayaḥ sakhye pratīyate. yasmin jāte sambhramādi-yogyatāyām api tad-abhāvaḥ. priyatvātiśayābhimānena kauṭilyābhāsa-pūrvaka-bhāva-vaicitrīṁ dadhat praṇayo mānaḥ, yasmin jāte śrī-bhagavān api tat-praṇaya-kopāt prema-mayaṁ bhayaṁ bhajate. ceto-dravātiśayātmakaḥ premaiva snehaḥ, yasmin jāte tat-sambandhābhāsenāpi mahā-bāṣpādi-vikāraḥ priya-darśanādy-atṛptis tasya parama-sāmarthyādau saty api keṣāṁcid aniṣṭāśaṅkā ca jāyate. dvāretau vātsalya lakṣyate. sneha evābhilāṣātiśātmako rāgaḥ, yasmin jāte kṣaṇikasyāpi virahasyātyantaivāsahiṣṇutā. tat-saṁyoge paraṁ duḥkham api sukhatvena bhāti, tad-viyoge tad-viparītam. sa eva rāgo’nukṣaṇaṁ sva-viṣayaṁ nava-navatvenānubhāvayan svayaṁ ca nava-navībhavann anurāgaḥ, yasmin jāte paraspara-vaśībhāvātiśayaḥ. prema-vaicittyaṁ tat-sambandhiny aprāṇiny api janma-lālasā, vipralambhe visphūrtiś ca jāyate. anurāga evāsamordhva-camatkāreṇonmādako mahā-bhāvaḥ. yasmin jāte yoge nimeṣāsahatā kalpa-kṣaṇatvam ity ādikam. viyoge kṣaṇa-kalpatvam ity ādikam. ubhayatra mahoddīptāśeṣa-sāttvika-vikārādikaṁ jāyate iti.

“In its initial stages, undeveloped prīti is only ullāsamayī (splendourous). Then it is called rati. This rati is implied in śānta-rasa.  When rati is born, any object other than Kṛṣṇa is considered to be insignificant. When this ullasamayi-rati becomes extremely possessive, then it is called prema.  This is perceived in dāsya-rasa. As this develops, all causes for terminating prīti can never become strong. When this prema transforms into viśvāsamayī (possessing great trust), it becomes praaya and this is perceived in sakhya-rasa. When praaya is born, reverence does not remain, even in situations where reverence would be appropriate. When praaya becomes diverse and there is a slight arrogance due to excessive feelings of identifying as a beloved of Kṛṣṇa, it is becomes māna (pride). When māna manifests, out of love, Śrī Bhagavān displays fear. When the heart achieves the condition where it completely melts, prema becomes sneha (affection). When sneha manifests, one cries excessively and even upon seeing Kṛṣṇa, one is unsatisfied. Despite being extremely capable of pleasing one’s Object of worship, one displays hesitancy and fear. When sneha is replete with desire, it becomes rāga. When rāga is born, even a moment’s separation becomes unbearable. Union and separation is happiness and distress. Yet that separation is also the cause of bliss. When that rāga constantly experiences it’s beloved Object of worship in newer and newer ways, and expresses bhāva in newer ways, it is known as anurāga. When anurāga appears, it results in mutual submission and due to prema-vaicitra (variegated prema), one is seen to even aspire to take birth as an inanimate object if it is in connection with one’s worshippable Lord. During such feelings of vipralambha (separation), there is visphūrti (Kṛṣṇa makes a special appearance). When anurāga is found to attain a state of insanity with unparalleled astonishment, it is called mahābhāva. When mahābhāva appears, at the time of union, even the passing of a moment cannot be tolerated, and a kalpa flies by in a second. During separation, one second appears to be kalpa. In anurāga and mahābhāva, characteristics such as sāttvika-bhāva are perceived as unlimited and with intense brilliance.”

(The kārikā continues:)

taraga-raginī prītis cid-vilāsa-svarūpinī
viaye sac-cid-ānande rasa-vistārinī matā
prauḍānanda-camātkara-rasa kṛṣṇe svabhāvata
kṛṣṇeti nāmadheyas tu janākaṛṣa-viśeata
cid-ghanānanda-sarvasva rūpa cāmta priyam
ananta-gua-sampūro līlāḍhyo gopī-vallabha
ebhir ligair hari sāksād dṛśyate preṣṭham ātmāna
tena vṛṇdāvane ramye tad-vane ramate tu ya
sa dhanya śuddha-buddho hi kenopaniada mate. 

Prīti, which is cid-vilāsa-svarūpiṇī (the embodiment of divine pastimes), plays in boundless waves, and constantly expands rasa for Kṛṣṇa, who is naturally sacchidānanda (comprised of existence, consciousness and bliss). Because of prīti’s inherent nature, rasa reveals intense bliss and astonishment for Kṛṣṇa. He is called Kṛṣṇa because kṛṣṇatattva is extraordinarily attractive to everyone. With His śyāma-rūpa (dark complexion) which is condensed consciousness and bliss, He is supremely ambrosial and the producer of prīti. Kṛṣṇa, the beloved of the gopīs, possesses completely unlimited auspicious attributes and eternal pastimes that abound with rasa. Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is the most beloved Object of the ātmā, must be directly perceived by serving His name, form, qualities and pastimes. One who enjoys with Kṛṣṇa in the forest of Vṛndāvana has pure intelligence and is most fortunate, according to the opinion of the Kena Upaniad.”

pañcāṅge sad-dhiyām anvaya-sukti-matāṁ sat-kpaika-prabhāvāt
rāga-prāpteṣṭa-dāsye vraja-jana-vihite jāyate laulyam addhā
vedātītā hi bhaktir bhavati tad-anugā kṛṣṇa-sevaika-rūpā
ksipra prītir viśuddhā samudayati tayā gaura-sikaiva gūḍhā

“Serving the Deity, relishing the explanations of the Bhāgavata with rasikas, associating with sādhus who are superior to oneself on the path of rāga, nāma-saṅkīrtana, and residing in Mathurā-maṇḍala – if one engages in these five limbs of sādhana with a heart devoid of offences, one attains sukṛti. Through the influence of real mercy, greed arises in a person to serve those residents of Vraja who have attained rāga to serve their beloved Kṛṣṇa. From that greed, sādhana-bhakti, which is known as rāgānugā arises, which transcends the Vedas. One then renders service Kṛṣṇa by following the bhāva of the residents of Vraja. By engaging in this bhakti-sādhana, within a short time, pure kevala-prīti (pure divine love) will arise. These are the esoteric teachings of Śrīman Mahāprabhu.”


Śrī Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya-candrārpanamastu

(May this be an offering unto Śrī Śrī Kṛṣṇa Caitanya-candra)