Datta Kaustubham - by Bhaktivinoda ThakurDatta Kaustubham – Verses 71-80
Datta Kaustubham - by Bhaktivinoda ThakurDatta Kaustubham – Verses 92-101

Datta Kaustubham
Verses 81 – 91

by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura
(translated by Swami Bhakti Vijñāna Giri)

guṇas tu vividhās tasmin karma līlā-prasaṅgakam
ebhir liṅgair hariḥ sākṣāl-lakṣyate preṣṭha ātmanaḥ

 Kṛṣna has various qualities and His activities are His pastimes. By all these characteristics Kṛṣṇa is directly perceived as being most dear to the jīvātmā.

 Now, all the attributes that define the subject of Śrī Kṛṣṇa are being described. Regarding the Name, He is ‘Kṛṣṇa’ because He attracts the jīva. His form is dark like a cloud because He bestows bliss upon the jīva. He possesses many kinds of qualities. His activities are His pastimes with the jīva. All these are eternal. Due to His specific qualities, He has many forms. Śrī Kṛṣna is supremely dear to the ātmā, i.e the jīvātmā.

cid-vastu cit-svabhāvasya jīvasya nikaṭa-sthitam
kim arthaṁ kleśyate tatra lakṣaṇāvṛttim āśritaḥ

That spiritual Subject (Kṛṣṇa) is located close to the jīva, whose inherent nature is transcendental. Why should one go through the difficulty of understanding Him by resorting to indirect interpretations (lakṣaṇa-vṛtti)?

The spiritual Subject is situated near to the jīva who specifically possesses an inherent transcendental nature. Again, what is the use of lakṣaṇa-vṛtti? It is like touching one’s nose by going around the back. According to this logic, the tendency to directly understanding the Supreme through lakṣaṇa-vṛtti is futile.

lakṣaṇālakṣitaṁ brahma dūrasthaṁ bhānam eva hi
ātma-pratyakṣa-labdhasya kṛṣṇasya hṛdi tiṣṭhataḥ

This is because the concept of the Supreme which is superimposed by lakṣaṇa-vṛtti exists within the heart and is merely a distant pretence of Kṛṣna (Kṛṣna’s inherent nature) realised by the ātmā. In other words, it is simply a feeling.

The meaning is clear.

prapañca-vartino jīvā vartamāna-svabhāvataḥ
paśyanti paramaṁ tattvaṁ nirmalaṁ mala-saṁyutam

Due to their inherent nature being presently concealed, the jīvas situated in the material world perceive the pure Supreme Truth to possess faults.

If everything can be achieved by the intense endeavours of one’s inherent knowledge, then why engage in sādhana, because inherent knowledge is eternally perfect. The answer to this is thus – vartamāna-svabhāvataḥ, in other words, due to the jīvas possessing an inferior nature in relation to place, time etc. in their present situation, all the bound jīvas perceive the pure Supreme Truth to possess faults, and according to the authoritative statement of the Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, the manifestation of eternally perfect bhāva within the heart is feasible (therefore this is the objective of sādhana).

varṇane yan malaṁ vākye smaraṇe yan malaṁ hṛdi
arcane yan malaṁ dravye sāra-bhājāṁ na tat kvacit

Faults in descriptions through words (in relation to Kṛṣṇa), faults in remembering (Kṛṣṇa) within the heart, and faults in all the objects used in arcana do not exist for those who are sāragrāhīs.

Because all words originate in the physical world, then the descriptions of kṛṣṇa-tattva in the śāstra certainly possess flaws. Even when the mind thinks about the topic of Kṛṣṇa, it possesses impurities. This is because the mind is a transformation of matter. In the activities of arcana, impurities amongst the ingredients are inevitable because the Deity, tulasī, the prayers, the food-offering etc. are all comprised of matter. However, without all these, it is not possible for the bound jīva to cultivate devotion to Bhagavān and engage in sādhana to attain supreme prīti. There is even some amount of inevitable impurity for those sādhakas who are focused upon the impersonal. Within those inevitable impurities, the minds of all the worshipers of the Absolute, i.e. the followers of Brahman, understand arcana to be idol worship. However, due to their brief practice and an absence of conception in relation to Bhagavān in all respects, their attainment of the wealth of prema is miniscule. They fear that it is impermanent because their understanding of treasure of prema is incomplete. Thus, when accepting words, mind and objects, and establishing a relationship amongst all these things with Bhagavān, by increasing one’s cultivation of devotion to Kṛṣṇa, the wealth of prema expands. The sāra-grāhīs reject sectarian quarrels concerning form and no form and worship Bhagavān with all their heart to achieve the supremely astounding wealth of prema – upon attaining that then, by Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s mercy, omniscience, the removal of bewilderment and many other qualities arise on their own. Those bhāravāhīs who are focused upon knowledge and logic, subjugated by irremovable (incurable) bewilderment, think that they can purify themselves through useless jñāna. Due to the inadequacy of their own power and because they lack the mood of an akiñcana (a surrendered devotee who gives up everything) who worships Bhagavān, the possessor of all potencies, they do not achieve purification through jñāna. However, the sāragrāhīs, who accept prīti as the essence amongst materials such as words, mind and other ingredients, avoid all impurities and quickly achieve the wealth of prīti.

na tatra vartate kaṣṭaṁ kṛṣṇaḥ sarvāśrayāśrayaḥ
kṛpayā malataḥ śīghraṁ prajñānaṁ coddhariṣyati

There is no difficulty (in all these matters). By the mercy of Kṛṣṇa, the shelter of all shelters, one’s intelligence can quickly become free from all these impurities.

There is no difficulty (mentally) in one’s efforts to perform sādhana by accepting that which is essential. That is because, Kṛṣṇa, the shelter of all those who take refuge in all bhāvas, mercifully frees our virtuous intelligence from impurities – in other words, He quickly frees one from the state of bondage. Why worry about this? Let everyone peacefully worship Bhagavān in all respects.

sambandha-tattva-bodhena cābhidheya-vidhānataḥ
rasābdhau majjate kṛṣṇe nirguṇaḥ sārabhuṅ naraḥ

By understanding sambandhajñāna and through engaging in sādhana (abhidheya), those persons who are sāragrāhīs cross beyond the modes of material nature and become absorbed in Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who is an ocean of rasa.

The meaning is clear. Sāra-bhuṅ-nara (one who accepts the essence) means a sāragrāhī. These are of three types – the sārānveṣi (those searching for the essence), the sāraprāpta (one who has attained the essence) and the sārāsvādī (one who relishes the essence). They are all nirguṇa, in other words, although they are connected with the material modes, they are not tainted by them, and possess aprākṛta-guṇas (transcendental qualities). Śṛṅgara-rasa is the inherently perfect rasa (svarūpasiddhirasa) of all jīvas. When the jīvas perfect the mood of being the enjoyed, and perfect the concept that the Supreme Lord is the absolute enjoyer, the jīva achieves svarūpa-siddhi (the attainment of his spiritual identity) and accepts the bhāva of a transcendental female. By attaining that female bhāva, it is then possible for the jīva to become immersed in the supreme ocean of rasa which is Śrī Kṛṣṇa. In other bhāvas however, there is no discovery (manifestation) of absorption in that supreme bliss. That is because in all these other bhāvas, there is some amount of restriction. Only this much will be said within this conclusive text. One can experience a taste of this supreme bhāva in texts such as Śrī Rāsa-pañcādhyāya (the five chapters of the rāsa-līlā in Śrīmad Bhāgavatam), Śrī Gīta Govinda, Śrī Haṁsadūta etc. Upon attaining śṛṅgara-rasa, due to abandoning material designations, the jīva achieves the position of parama-nirguṇa (supreme transcendence).

na jñānaṁ na ca vairāgyaṁ ca na jātir nāpi karma ca
kāraṇaṁ sāra-sampattau pravṛttir mukhya-kāraṇam

Neither knowledge, nor renunciation, nor birth or karma are the cause of the most essential wealth. Inclination (taste) is the primary cause.

Inclination or ruci (taste) is the primary cause of the most essential wealth. Other causes only assist.

sā pravṛttiḥ kutaḥ kasmāt kadā vā kena hetunā
saṁśayo’tra mahān śaśvad varttate’ viduṣāṁ hṛdi

Where did this ruci come from? When does it arise? For whom does it manifest? What is the cause (of its attainment) – great doubts constantly exist in the hearts of those who are inexperienced in this matter. 

From which place does it come from? What prompts it? At what times does it arise? What is the reason for its appearance? Everything else is clear.

prāyaśaḥ sādhu-saṅgena kasyacij-jñāna-sādhanāt
kasya vānārtha-bodhena kasya vaidha-vidhānataḥ

kasya vā janmataḥ kasya cābhyāsa-vāśataḥ kvacit
pravṛttir jāyate sāre kasya vākasmikī bhavet

For some it is through jñāna-sādhana, for some, it is through comprehending anarthas, for some, it comes as a result of following the rules of the śāstra, for some it appears at birth, and for some it comes as a result of practice. However, ruci often arises by the influence of sādhusaṅga. It is rare that someone suddenly develops ruci.  

Vaidha-vidhāntaḥ – in other words, in pursuance with the path of vidhi within the sampradāya. The rest is clear.

Datta Kaustubham - by Bhaktivinoda ThakurDatta Kaustubham – Verses 71-80
Datta Kaustubham - by Bhaktivinoda ThakurDatta Kaustubham – Verses 92-101

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