jaya jaya mahāprabhu jaya bhakta-gaṇa
yādera prasāde kari nāma-saṅkīrtana
Glories to Mahāprabhu, glories to the devotees. It is by their mercy that I engage in nāma–saṅkīrtana.
Pramāda-nāmaka aparādha (Inattention as an Offence to the Name)
hari-dāsa bale prabhu hethā sanātane
āra ta gopāla bhaṭṭa dakṣiṇa bhramaṇe
śikhāile apramāde śrī-kṛṣṇa-bhajana
pramādake aparādhe karile gaṇana
Hari Dāsa said, “O Lord, You taught to Sanātana here, and to Gopāla Bhaṭṭa while travelling in the south, that one should not be inattentive during śrī-kṛṣṇa-bhajana. Thus, pramāda (inattention) is counted as an offence. (1)
(1) He told to Śrī Sanātana:
eka aṅga sādhe keha sādhe bahu aṅga
niṣṭhā haile upajaya premera taraṅga
(“Whether one performs one or many divisions of bhakti, when niṣṭhā appears, the waves of prema will awaken.” (Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 22.134)
By abandoning pramāda, or inattention, then niṣṭhā at the time of sādhana is born.
anya aparādha tyaji sadā nāma laya
tabu nāme prema nāhi haya ta udaya
“Some give up all the other offences and constantly chant the Name, but still prema for the Name does not arise in them.
tabe jāni pramāda nāmete aparādha
prema-bhakti sādhanete kariteche bādha
“Then I know that the nāmāparādha of pramāda is impeding their sādhana and their attainment of prema-bhakti.
Anavadhānakei pramāda bale (Inattention is Known as Pramāda)
pramāda anavadhāna ei mūla artha
ihā haite ghaṭe prabhu sakala anartha
“The original meaning of pramāda is ‘inattention.’ O Lord, from this, all other anarthas arise.
Tina prakāra anavadhāna (The Three Types of Inattention)
audāsīnya jāḍya āra vikṣepa e tina
prakāra anavadhāna bujhibe pravīṇa
“Those who are wise understand three types of inattention—audāsīnya (indifference), jāḍya (laziness) and vikṣepa (distraction). (2)
(2) In respect to sādhana, audāsīnya means a lack of niṣṭhā, jāḍya means laziness, and vikṣepa means that the mind is invested in other things.
Anurāga nā haoyā paryanta nāma-grahaṇe yatnera āvaśyakatā (If One has not Achieved Anurāga, then it is Required that One Should Chant the Name with Great Care)
kona bhāgye kona jīvera śraddhā yadi haya
tabe tiṅha hari-nāma grahaṇa karaya
“Due to some good fortune, if a jīva attains śraddhā, then he can chant hari–nāma. (3)
(3) One should keep count on tulasī beads, and gradually a desire will arise to increase the number.
yatna kari smare nāma saṅkhyāra sahita
tabe nāme anurāga haya ta udita
“By carefully remembering the Name and keeping count, anurāga (attraction) for the Name will develop.
ye paryanta anurāga nā haya udaya
se paryanta yatna kari nāma sadā laya
“As long as anurāga has not appeared, one should endeavour to constantly chant the Name.
Yatnābhāve sādhakera citta sthira haya nā (The Sādhaka who is Careless Cannot Steady the Mind)
nisargataḥ loka saba viṣaye āsakta
smṛti-kāle viṣaya-antare anurakta
“People are naturally attracted to sense objects. At the time when one remembers them, the internal senses become attached to them. (4)
(4) Viṣaya-antare (sense objects in the mind) – other things (unrelated to Kṛṣṇa).
ruci yāya anya sthāne nāme udāsīna
nāme citta magna nahe jape prati-dina
“By having a taste for other things, one becomes indifferent to the Name. Even by chanting japa every day, still one’s mind is not absorbed in the Holy Name.
citta eka dike āra anya dike nāma
tāhāra maṅgala kise haya guṇa dhāma
“The mind will be in one direction, while the Name will be in another direction. O Abode of all good qualities, how can such a person attain any auspiciousness?
lakṣa nāma haile pūrṇa saṅkhyā mālā gaṇi
hṛdaye nahila rasa bindu guṇa maṇi
“O Jewel of all qualities, one may complete chanting a lakh of Names (100,000 Names, or 64 rounds) on the beads, but not even a drop of rasa appears in the heart.
ei ta anavadhāna doṣera prakāra
viṣayī hṛdaye prabhu baḍa durnivāra
“This is the fault with this kind of inattentiveness – it is extremely difficult to remove from the heart of those who are attached to sense objects.
Yatna karibāra vidhi (The Rules for Being Careful)
sādhu saṅge svalpa kāla chāḍiyā viṣaya
nirjane laile nāma ei doṣa kṣaya
“In a short time, one can abandon sense objects through sādhu–saṅga. This fault is destroyed by chanting the Name in a secluded place. (5)
(5) Initially, one may regularly follow in this way for a half hour, starting with chanting the Name in a secluded place in the association of sādhus. Eventually, by observing the nature of those sādhus, one will emulate them, abandon his indifference and a desire (for service) will arise.
krame krame kṛṣṇa-nāme citta haya sthira
nirantara nāma-rase haya ta adhīra
“Gradually, the mind will become fixed upon kṛṣṇa-nāma, then one loses all composure by perpetually tasting nāma-rasa.
tulasīra sannikaṭe kṛṣṇa-līlā sthāne
sādhu sannidhāne basi sātvata-vidhāne
“The sātvata–vidhāna (method prescribed by the sādhus) states that one should reside near tulasī, a place of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes and in the company of sādhus. (6)
(6) Sātvata-vidhāna (the method prescribed by the sādhus) – the method of the previous sādhus absorbed in the bliss of bhajana. First one chants for half an hour, then an hour, then one gradually increases his chanting to two hours, then gradually his chanting is increased to one lakṣa (64 rounds), and then to three lakṣa (192 rounds). Such an increase develops naturally.
krame kāla vṛddhi kari sei nāma smare
ati śīghra viṣayera chanda haite tare
“Gradually, one increases his time meditating on the Name, and very quickly transcends the desire for sense objects.
Anya prakriyā. ei rūpa karile audāsīnya rūpa anavadhāna haya nā (Another Method, which Does Not Lead to Indifference)
athavā nirjane basi smari sādhu-rīti
indriya pidhāna kari nāme kare mati
“Otherwise, one may sit in a secluded place, remembering the method of the sādhus. By covering the senses, one may fix the mind on the Name. (7)
(7) Indriya pidhāna kari (covering the senses) – sitting alone in a room with the door closed, or covering the eyes, nose etc. with a cloth during sādhana.
satvare nāmete niṣṭhā ruci krame haya
audāsīnya doṣe tāra krame haya kṣaya
“Swiftly one attains niṣṭhā and then gradually ruci (a taste) for the Name. Then the fault of indifference is eventually destroyed.
Jāḍya-janita anavadhāna lakṣaṇa (The Symptoms of Inattention Arising from Laziness)
jāḍye ye anavadhāna alasera mane
tāhe ruci nāhi haya śrī-nāma-grahaṇe
“Inattention from jāḍya stems from an idle mind. Thus, a taste will not arise when chanting śrī–nāma.
smṛti-kāle punaḥ śīghra virāme prayāsa
ei doṣe nāma-rasa nā haya prakāśa
“At the time of remembering (the Holy Name) one will endeavour to finish one’s chanting quickly. Due to this fault, nāma–rasa will not manifest.
anya kārye vṛthā kāla nā haya yāpana
sādhu-gaṇa ihā cinti smare anukṣaṇa
“Sādhus never waste time in other useless activities, but remember the Name at every moment.(8)
(8) The symptom of a sādhu’s character is avyartha-kālatva-dharma (‘his nature is that he does not waste his time engaging in unnecessary activities’), and one should emulate this.
nāma smare rase maje anya nāhi cāya
sei rūpa sādhu-saṅge ei doṣa yāya
“Meditating upon nāma and absorbed in rasa, they desire nothing else. This fault (of laziness) vanishes in the association of sādhus.
anveṣiyā sei rūpa sādhu-saṅga kare
tad-anukaraṇe citta jāḍya parihare
“In this way, one must search for sādhu–saṅga, and by emulating them, one will avoid mental laziness.(9)
(9) A viśuddha-sādhu-bhakta (pure devotee sādhu) is rare. Searching from place to place, one will eventually find sādhu–saṅga.
avyartha kālatva dharma sādhura carita
dekhile tāhāte ruci haibe niścita
“It is the nature of a sādhu’s character not to waste time in useless things. Observing such actions, an aspiring devotee will certainly attain ruci.
mane habe āhā kabe ihāra samāna
smariba gāiba nāma haye bhāgyavān
“He will think, ‘Oh when will I be the same as this? When will I become fortunate enough to remember and chant the Name like him?’”
sei ta utsāha āsi alasera mane
jāḍya dūra kare kṛṣṇa-nāmera smaraṇe
“In this way, he will become enthusiastic. Lazy thoughts stemming from jāḍya will go far away and he will be able to remember kṛṣṇa–nāma.
mane habe āja lakṣa nāma ye kariba
krame krame tina lakṣa nāma ye smariba
“He will think, ‘Today I will chant one lakṣa of Holy Names and gradually I will meditate upon three lakṣa of Names.’
mahāgraha habe citte nāmera saṅkhyāya
acire yāibe jāḍya sādhura kṛpāya
“In his mind he has great eagerness and he chants a fixed number of Names. Very soon, jāḍya goes away, by the mercy of the sādhu.
Vikṣepa janita anavadhāna lakṣaṇa (Understanding the Characteristics of Distraction)
vikṣepa haite yei pramāda udaya
bahu yatne sei aparādha haya kṣaya
“The inattention that comes from vikṣepa is an aparādha which can only be destroyed with great effort.
kanaka kāminī āra jaya parājaya
pratiṣṭhāśā śāṭhya-vṛtti tāhāra nilaya
“It resides in the desire for gold, women, the victory and defeat of others, hankering for prestige, and the tendency to deceive. (10)
(10) Tāhāra nilaya (‘they reside there’) – these are the residences for jāḍya.
e saba ākṛṣṭi hṛde haile udaya
nāmete anavadhāna svabhāvataḥ haya
“When attraction for all these arises in the heart, one naturally becomes inattentive to the Name. (11)
(11) Ākṛṣṭa – “pulled or drawn towards.”
Vikṣepa-tyāgera upāya (The Method of Abandoning Distraction)
krame krame sei saba cintā parihāre
yatibe saubhāgyavān vaiṣṇava ācāre
“Gradually, one gives up thinking about all these things. One who is most fortunate endeavours to follow the conduct of a Vaiṣṇava.(12)
(12) Yatibe – struggles.
prathamete hari-dine bhoga-cintā tyaji
sādhu-saṅge rātra-dina hari-nāma bhaji
“Firstly, on days that are sacred to Hari, one should renounce even the thought of food, and in the association of sādhus, worship hari-nāma day and night. (13)
(13) Hari–dina—Hari-vasara, Ekādaśī, appearance days of the Lord etc.
hari-kṣetre hari-dāsa hari-śāstre laye
utsave majibe sukhe parama nirbhaye
“In a place sacred to Hari, with Hari’s servants, and reading śāstra about Hari, one should absorb oneself in such supremely blissful festivals without any fear. (14)
(14) Hari-kṣetra – Śrī Navadvīpa, Śrī Vṛndāvana, Śrī Puruṣottama etc.
Hari-dāsa – those pure Vaiṣṇavas who are rūpānugas.
Hari-śāstra – the śruti, the Gītā, Śrī Bhāgavata, and all texts that follow Vaiṣṇava siddhānta.
krame bhakti-kāla mana karibe vardhana
hari-kathā mahotsave majāiyā mana
“Gradually, one spends more and more time rapt in activities connected to bhakti. The mind becomes immersed in a festival of bliss when engaged in hari–kathā.
śreṣṭha rasa krame citte haibe udaya
jaḍera nikṛṣṭa rasa chāḍibe niścaya
“Eventually, the greatest rasa dawns within the heart. Then one will definitely abandon the mediocre rasa of mundane things.
mahājana mukhe hari-saṅgīta śravaṇe
mugdha habe manaḥ karṇa rasa āsvādane
“Hearing songs about Hari from the mouth of a mahājana, one’s mind and ears become charmed and relish such rasa.
nikṛṣṭa viṣaya-spṛhā haibe vigata
nāma gāne citta sthira habe avirata
“When the desire for inferior sense objects disappears, the mind becomes steady in chanting the Holy Name.
ataeva bahu yatne e pramāda tyaje
sthira citte nāma-rase cira dina maje
“Thus, one should endeavour to reject this type of pramāda, then with a steady mind one will always be immersed in nāma–rasa.
saṅkalpita nāma saṅkhyā pūrṇa karibāre
nā haya ayatna nāme dekhi bāre bāre
“One must be determined to complete one’s prescribed number of Names. Again and again, one should not be careless in observing the Name. (15)
(15) Those who are addicted to inattention in the form of vikṣepa, try to finish their prescribed number of Names as quickly as possible. One should not be careless and, again and again, maintain caution in observing one’s nāma-sādhana.
satarka haiyā kari nāma saṅkīrtana
pramāda chāḍiyā kari nāmera bhajana
“Perform nāma–saṅkīrtana with care. Reject pramāda and worship the Name.
saṅkhyādhika spṛhā chāḍi ekāgra-mānase
nirantara kari nāma tava kṛpā-bale
“One must reject the desire to simply increase the number (of rounds), and with one-pointed concentration one will incessantly chant the Holy Names, by Your mercy. (16)
(16) “Increasing the number of names” – one should try to chant the syllables of the Name clearly and with feeling. It is proper to make an endeavour in this regard.
ei kṛpā kara prabhu nāmete pramāda
nā bādhe āmāra citte nāma rasāsvāda
“O Lord, please give Your mercy, so that inattention to the Name never becomes an obstacle to my mind, and I can relish nāma-rasa.
Prakriyā (The Method)
ekāgra mānase nirjanete svalpa kṣaṇa
nāma smṛti abhyāsa karibe bhakta jana
“One should spend a little time alone, and practice meditating upon the Name with single-minded attention.
ataeva spaṣṭa nāma bhāva lagna mane
sadā haya e prārthanā tomāra caraṇe
“Thus, one will be able to chant the Name clearly and with feeling within one’s mind. This is my constant prayer at Your feet.
āpana yatnete keha nāhi pāre
tomāra prasāda vinā e bhava-saṁsāre
“By one’s own endeavours, no one in this world of birth and death can overcome distraction without Your mercy. (17)
(17) “No jīva can overcome pramāda by his own effort. However, by Your mercy, it becomes easy. Therefore, in all endeavours it is necessary to pray fervently for Your mercy.”
Yatnāgrahera āvaśyakatā. Niṣkapaṭa nāma grahaṇe tāhā avaśya thāke, natuvā aparādha (It is Necessary to Make a Great Endeavour. One Must Chant the Name Sincerely, without Duplicitous Pretense, Otherwise There Will be an Offence)
yatna kari kṛpā māgi vyākula antare
tumi kṛpāmaya kṛpā kara ataḥpare
“I shall try to beg for Your mercy with a desperate heart. You are the repository of compassion, so kindly be merciful.
tava kṛpā lābhe yadi nā kari yatana
tabe āmi bhāgya hīna he śacī-nandana
“O Śacī-nandana! If I do not try to attain Your mercy, then I will be bereft of any good fortune.” (18)
(18) Those who engage in bhajana on the strength of their own intelligence or wealth can never achieve success. Kṛṣṇa’s mercy is at the root of all activities. Therefore, one who does not endeavour to attain Kṛṣṇa’s mercy is deprived of good fortune. At the end of this chapter, it is said that one should practice meditating on the Name with one-pointed concentration. In this regard, Śrī Mahāprabhu gave the following advice to all jīvas (Caitanya-bhāgavata, Madhya-khāṇḍa 23.75-78):
āpane sabāre prabhu kare upadeśa
kṛṣṇa-nāma mahā-mantra śunaha hariṣe
hare kṛṣṇa hare kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa hare hare
hare rāma hare rāma rāma rāma hare hare
prabhu bale hari-nāma ei mahā-mantra
ihā japa giyā sabe kariyā nirbandha
ihā haite sarva-siddhi haibe sabāra
sarva-kṣaṇa bala ithe vidhi nāhi āra
(“The Lord gave everyone this instruction: ‘Be happy by hearing the mahā–mantra comprised of Kṛṣṇa’s names – Hare kṛṣṇa hare kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa hare hare, hare rāma hare rāma rāma rāma hare hare.’ The Lord said – ‘Chant this mahā–mantra. All of you chant it a prescribed number of times. By doing so, you will attain all perfection. Chant at every moment. There is no other rule to follow.”)
Here, the word nirbandha means that the devotee will chant these sixteen names and thirty-two syllables, one-hundred and eight times on tulasī beads. Four rounds on the beads is a grantha. One should regularly chant one grantha, and then gradually increase till one is chanting sixteen granthas, or one lakṣa (64 rounds). When one gradually increases to chanting three lakṣas (192 rounds), then all his time will be spent with the Name. All the previous mahājanas obeyed the Lord’s instruction and attained all perfection. It is still possible for everyone to attain all perfection through nāma–japa. Those who are already liberated (mukta), those who desire liberation (mumukṣu) and materialists (viṣayī) are all eligible to chant the Name. When chanting the Name, dIfferent emotions are seen in the mukta etc. In both the state of viraha (separation) and sambhoga (union), the Holy Name is eternally relished.
hari-nāma-cintāmaṇi alaṅkāra yāra
hari-dāsa-pada-yuga bharasā tāhāra
This person, who decorates himself with this Hari-nāma Cintāmaṇi, has faith in the feet of Hari Dāsa.
iti śrī-hari-nāma-cintāmanau nāmāparādha-pramāda-vicārau
Thus ends the Twelth Chapter of Śrī Hari-nāma Cintāmaṇi entitled, ‘A Deliberation on the Nāmāparādha of Pramāda.’