Tattva Viveka – Chapter Two
cid-acic-chakti-sampannaṁ tam vande kali-pāvanam ||1|||
I offer respects to the deliverer of Kali-yuga, who is endowed with the cit and acit śaktis, who is the shelter of the rasa of the highest bliss, and whose limbs are condensed sac-cidānanda.
svarūpam āsthito hy ātmā svarūpa-śakti-vṛttitaḥ
vadaty eva nijātmānam upādhi-rahitaṁ vacaḥ ||2||
Situated in his svarūpa, the ātmā, endowed with svarūpa-śakti, speaks words devoid of upādhis concerning his own ātmā.
All the jīvas bound in the material world, taking support of the variety here, give various answers to the questions posed in the second verse of the first chapter . Those who discern ātmā, who understand their svarūpa through teachings of an authentic guru, give the correct answer, being situated in their svarūpa. The answer is one everywhere.
 Who am I? What is this universe? What is the relationship of the two?
The questions in the first chapter were, “Who am I – an enjoyer in this material world? What is this huge universe? What is the relationship between me and the universe?”
The answers given by jīvas in māyā were considered in the first chapter. In this second chapter the correct answers to the three questions by the ātmā situated in his svarūpa will be explained. What is the ātmā situated in his svarūpa? This will first be discussed. The existence of ātmā surpassing material place, time, senses, body and other material relationships is the ātmā situated in his svarūpa. The Bhāgavatam, the essence of all the Vedas, speaks of the pure ātmā.
muktir hitvānyathā-rūpaṁ svarūpeṇa vyavasthitiḥ
“Liberation means giving up other forms and being situated in one’s svarūpa.” (S.B. 2.10.6)
When free of the state of māyā, one is situated in the svarūpa of ātmā. The answers that such an ātmā gives are the correct answers to the three questions. One may argue that the jīva in māyā is endowed with a body, senses and logic. When the jīvas gives up this state where will his body, senses and logic reside to give an answer to the questions? The answer is this: the ātmā has a svarūpa of knowledge and his quality is also knowledge. He is not just a svarūpa of knowledge. Though a lamp is illumination, it has the quality of illuminating other objects. The ātmā also, though being knowledge, also reveals knowledge in relation to objects. The ātmā itself can see, hear, smell, taste and touch. This quality of knowledge is inherent in the ātmā.
Falling in a state of māyā the ātmā is bound up by a covering of matter. In order to relate with the material world, material senses are given to the jīva for performing secondary activities. By material eye he sees, by material ear he hears, by material nose he smells, by material tongue he tastes and by material skin he touches. Losing his natural śakti, the jīva acts by another śakti. In this state he makes conclusions by material logic. For the ātmā who is actually jñāna-svarūpa, this state is most unfortunate. When the jīva is situated in his svarūpa, he can directly perform all actions by functions of ātmā. His logic is self-manifesting. In this state, his logical answers to the questions arise naturally. The ātmā performs his activities by functions of the śakti of the ātmā. The answers to the questions that he gives to you are devoid of upādhis. Whatever answer an ātmā situated in his svarūpa gives in India is also given by an ātmā situated in his svarūpa in countries of the northern hemisphere. The ātmā in Vaikuṇṭha will give the same answer since there is no variegated qualities of māyā in their conclusions. The answers thus cannot be different.
bhagavān eka evāste parā-śakti-samānvitaḥ
tac-chakti-niḥsṛto jīvo brahmāṇḍaṁ ca jaḍātmakam ||3||
The Lord is one entity, endowed with superior śakti. The jīva manifests from this śakti. The universe is made of matter.
There are many statements in the Veda to show that the Lord is eternal.
“The Lord is one without a second.” (Chāndogya Upaniṣad 6.2.1)
neha nānāsti kiñcana
“In the Lord there is no quality, no material variety.” (Bṛhad-āraṇyaka Upanişad 4.4.19)
sa viśvakṛt viśvavit, pradhāna-kşetra-jña-patir guṇeśaḥ
“The Lord is the maker and knower of the universe. He is the master of the jīvas and prakṛti. He is the master of the guņas.” (Śvetāśvatara Upanişad 6.16)
ekaḥ devo bhagavān vareṇyaḥ
“The one Lord is most excellent.” (Śvetāśvatara Upanişad 5.4)
vadanti ta tattva-vidas tattvaṁ yaj jñānam advayam
brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate
“The knowers of tattva say that tattva is advaya-jñāna. It is known as Brahman, Paramātmā and Bhagavān.” (S.B. 1.2.11)
One should understand that Bhagavān is in highest position, superior than Brahman or Paramātmā. One should not think that Brahman and Paramātmā are separate Lords and that Bhagavān is their Lord.
Jīva is the seer. When Bhagavān becomes the object of his sight, then first he sees Brahman through the path of meditation using jñāna. Investigating further, he arrives at the path of yoga. On this path he sees Bhagavān as Paramātmā. When by good fortune pure bhakti-yoga arises, the jīva situated in that bhakti-yoga sees the svarūpa of Bhagavān. The object of his sight is sweet, filled with bliss, sac-cid-ānanda, medium sized attractive human form. In him all powers, all potencies, all fame, all beauty, all knowledge and all renunciation combine harmoniously. Realization of Brahman and Paramātmā are hidden, being included with realization of Bhagavān. Bhagavān is endowed with all śaktis. Endowed with śaktis and will, he always accomplishes his eternal and occasional pastimes. Since he is independent and the maker of all rules, he is not bound by any rules. Bhagavān has no second entity. He has neither any equal nor any one superior. His superior śakti is endowed with great skill. By his perfect, spiritual skill, his superior śakti transforms into the spiritual dhāma, the spiritual pastimes and the ingredients of the spiritual world. The spiritual world’s transformations arise from the completeness of his śakti. The śakti is variegated. It transforms into something very small. The superior śakti accepting spiritual particles, their minute qualities and activities, manifests as the jīva-śakti in the universe. The superior śakti has another power which is like a shadow. In this power, twenty-four elements—five gross elements, five tan-mātras (subtle elements), ten senses, mind, citta, buddhi and ahaṅkāra manifest. This is called the material universe and the shadow śakti is called māyā.
so’rkas tat-kiraņo jīvo nityānugata-vigrahaḥ
prīti-dharmā cid-ātmā parānando’pi dāya-bhāk ||4||
Bhagavān is the sun and the jīva is a ray of the sun, a form eternally subservient to the Lord. The jīva is affectionate to the Lord, conscious, filled with the highest bliss and a claimant of the Lord’s mercy.
Bhagavān is like the sun and the jīvas are like rays of the sun. It is their natural quality to be subservient to the Lord. The jīva is a minute conscious particle, suitable for the quality of subservience. The jīva’s svarūpa is a small particle of consciousness. The jīva is spiritual ātmā. Spiritual qualities take a minuscule form as the qualities of the jīva. The nature of the conscious entity is affection. The jīva is a particle of affection. His nature is affection. Though the jīva is conscious by svarūpa and affectionate by quality, since it is a particle in form, its svarūpa and quality are imperfect. The jīva has by nature a particle of bliss. This is called brahmānanda.
brahmānando bhaved eșa cet parārdha-guṇi-kṛtaḥ
naiti bhakti-sudhāmbodheḥ paramāṇu-tulām api
“The bliss of Brahman realization accumulated by samādhi lasting for half of Brahmā’s life cannot compare to one drop of the ocean of the happiness of bhakti.” (BRS 1.1.38)
The jīva is naturally qualified for the intense bliss at the highest stage of bhakti. Understanding that brahmānanda is insignificant, when the jīva satisfies the Lord by his service, the Lord activates the cit-śakti in the jīva’s nature. Attaining the strength of the cit-śakti, the jīva is able to attain the highest bliss.
tac-chakteś chāyayā viśvaṁ sarvam etad vinirmitam
yatra bahirmukhā jīvāḥ saṁsaranti nijecchayā ||5||
By the shadow of this śakti, the whole universe is created. There the jīvas averse to the Lord take continual birth by their desire.
When the jīva is obedient to the Lord he is entitled to the highest bliss. Similarly, when the jīva is averse to the Lord, the jīvas falls under the statutes of saṁsāra by acting independently. Just as the cit-śakti helps the jīva to elevate, the māyā-śakti which produces the material world helps the jīva become entangled in saṁsāra. Māyā-śakti is a shadow of the cit-śakti. It produces the material universe which is suitable for the saṁsāra of the jīva. It creates the gross and subtle bodies for the jīva for attempts at enjoyment. Falling into the material universe, the jīva is punished by the bondage of karma. The only cause of saṁsāra is the aversion to the Lord. It is understood here that the jīva does not originate in the material world, nor he originates in the spiritual world. He originates at the junction of the two worlds. By nature, the conscious particle has independent desire. Having more attraction to enjoying matter than advancing spiritually, the jīva by his desire accepts saṁsāra. There is no fault of the Lord in this. The Lord, displaying his mercy, creates the material universe for the jīva’s enjoyment according to the jīva’s desire. The material universe is created such that the jīva will develop discrimination and detachment after a short time of enjoyment. By the arrangement of association with devotees, the Lord creates the path for the jīva’s deliverance.
jīvato jaḍato vāpi bhagavān sarvadā pṛthak
na tau bhagavato bhinnau rahasyam idam eva hi ||6||
The Lord is always different from the jīvas and matter. The two are not different from the Lord. This is the secret.
The Lord made the jīvas and matter as different tattvas from himself. But the jīva and the material universe are not different from him. This is a supreme secret. The Lord in his svarūpa is eternally different from the jīva and the material universe. He enters the jīva and the material universe in the form of his śakti.
Vedavyāsa, having revealed all the scriptures and deliberating, could not understand this secret. With sorrowful heart he began weeping. Nārada, the Lord’s devotee, came and spoke the catuḥ-ślokī which he had learnt from Brahmā. This was a summary of the Bhāgavatam’s conclusions. The essence is this: one should know jñāna, vijñāna, rahasya (secret) and it’s aṅga (sādhana-bhakti). Jñāna means that Bhagavān, the supreme tattva, existed before everything. Cit and acit, and Brahman superior to them had not manifested. When creation took place, the Lord transformed as śakti and when there was no creation, the Lord alone remained in his svarūpa of complete power. This is bhagavat-jñāna. Brahma-jñāna is its servant.
Vijñāna means that the Lord is supreme, and whatever else is perceived outside his svarūpa, or not perceived in his svarūpa is known as his śakti-tattva. In this instance, māyā refers to yogamāyā a form of the superior śakti. This śakti is eternally different and non-different from the Lord. Being non-different it is not known and being different it is known.
Being different it is known in two ways: as an ābhāsa or particle (jīva) and as tamas or matter. The particle is the totality of jīvas and the matter is the material universe. They are included in the known śakti of the Lord. Knowing the Lord with these śaktis is called vijñāna.
The third tattva is rahasya (secret). Just as prakṛti, mahat-tattva, etc., enter into the gross elements like earth, and still do not enter remaining separate, the Lord, like the sun, enters the jīvas and remains eternally separate. When the jīvas are subservient or have bhakti for the Lord, then the Lord becomes their eternal companion. That is the secret.
The aṅga is that the jīva, suffering the pains of saṁsāra, asks about ātmā from the devotees and, attaining the mercy of a guru, by deliberating positively and negatively, attains the Lord who is the eternal truth. This is the acintya-bhedābheda-tattva spoke by the Lord.
jaḍa-jāla-gatā jīvā jaḍāśaktiṁ vihāya ca
svakīya-vṛttim ālocya śanakair labhate param ||7||
Giving up attachment to matter, the jīva entangled in the net of matter, seeing his natural function, gradually attains the Supreme Lord.
All jīvas are two types: nitya-baddha and nitya-mukta. The nitya-mukta jīvas are eternally attracted to serving the Lord. The jīvas who have fallen into the net of māyā, giving up attachment to material objects, understanding their spiritual function, attain the supreme tattva. The jīva’s svakīya-vṛtti (natural function) is subservience to the Lord. The jīva will decrease his attachment to material objects by viewing spiritual objects with a favourable mood. When the spiritual cultivation is complete, attachment to matter will completely stop and the jīva will obtain the feet of the Lord, the spiritual head, the supreme tattva for the jīva-tattva. With spiritual cultivation, a spiritual taste will arise. As long as the jīva is materially attached, he will remain averse to realizing spiritual objects.
cintātītam idaṁ tattvaṁ dvaitādvaita-svarūpakam
caitanya-caraṇāsvādāc chuddha-jīve pratīyate ||l8||
This tattva which is different and non-different in svarūpa is beyond contemplation. It is realized in the pure jīva from tasting the lotus feet of Caitanya Mahāprabhu. This dvaitādvaita-svarūpa tattva is beyond man’s conception, since contrary qualities existing simultaneously is not seen in the material world. The jīva bound by matter does not perceive this by his material knowledge. Uncountable contrary qualities in the Lord are adjusted nicely by the acintya-śakti.
The Lord is without transformation and yet is a person endowed with desire. Although endowed with medium size, he is smaller than the smallest and greater than the greatest. Though neutral, he is affectionate to his devotees. Though without qualities, he has qualities. Though he is Brahman, he is the cowherd boy Kṛşņa. Though full of knowledge, he is full of prema. Bhagavān, in this way, is the shelter of all contrary qualities. There is no example of this in material objects. The intelligence of humans bound by matter takes shelter of matter and is not suitable to contact objects beyond matter. Thus they cannot understand the inconceivable entity. Humans in a bound condition cannot clearly realize acintya-bhedābheda-tattva. Will the bound jīva in any condition ever see the beauty of this tattva? Those who attain a taste for the lotus feet of Caitanya can gradually purify their spiritual perception. Becoming pure, their pure svarūpa as jīva will manifest and will be able to understand acintya-bhedābheda-tattva clearly.
There are two meanings to “tasting the lotus feet of Caitanya” but actually they become one meaning. One meaning is tasting happiness by serving Lord Caitanya’s lotus feet. The meaning is to follow the supreme conscious tattva. Lord Caitanya and the supreme conscious tattva are non-different. Thus the two meanings become one. Those whose philosophies have been discussed earlier in this work are all bound up jīvas, particles of consciousness. Rejecting their opinions, the supreme tattva taught by pure consciousness is discussed in this chapter
cid eva paramaṁ tattvaṁ cid eva parameśvaraḥ
cit-kaṇo jīva evāsau viśeṣaś cid-vicitratā ||9||
The supreme tattva is spiritual conscious. This is the Supreme Lord who is conscious. The jīva is a conscious particle. The special nature of cit is variety among the conscious entities.
Though in terms of tattva there are jīvas, matter and cit, the cit entity is the supreme tattva – the Supreme Lord. The Supreme Lord is consciousness (cit) and the jīva is a conscious particle. Variety in the conscious tattva is its special quality. The form of the sun in the spiritual world is Bhagavān. Thus he is the svarūpa of it. When he becomes rays as the jīva he becomes a conscious particle. Variety in the conscious tattva is its special nature. There is nothing better than conscious tattva. The variety in the material world is just an inferior reflection of the variety in the spiritual world.
ānandaś cid-guṇaḥ proktaḥ sa vai vṛtti-svarūpakaḥ
yasyānuśīlanāj jīvaḥ parānanda-sthitim labhet ||10||
The quality of consciousness is said to be bliss. That is its natural function. By cultivating that function, the jīva attains a situation of the highest bliss.
Just as independent desire (free will) is the nature of a conscious entity, bliss is the quality of a conscious entity (jīva). That bliss is the very function of the conscious entity. Cultivating that function, the jīva attains a position of the highest bliss. Eșa hy evānandayati: the Lord gives bliss. (Taittirīya Upanişad 2.7.1) Bliss is the dharma of the conscious entity. Just as fire has the function of burning and water has the function of liquidity, a conscious entity has a function of bliss. Though bound by matter, the jīva reveals a function of bliss from material objects. Any object has two aspects: its svarūpa and its function. The function of a conscious entity is bliss. Cultivating bliss beyond matter, the jīva easily attains the bliss of its svarūpa. Gradually the jīva becomes qualified for enjoying the supreme bliss of the Lord.
cid-vastu jaḍato bhinnaṁ svatantrecchātmakaṁ sadā
praviṣṭam api māyāyāṁ sva-svarūpaṁ na tat tyajet ||11||
The conscious entity (jīva) is different from dull mater. It has free will at all times. Entering into māyā, the conscious entity does not give up its svarūpa.
What is the svarūpa of the conscious entity (jīva)? Many people ask this question. The full answer is generally not given. The jīva is a conscious entity but, forgetting his svarūpa, the jīva finds it difficult to explain clearly his own svarūpa. However, though the svarūpa of the jīva becomes distorted, he does not give up his basic nature. The jīva is a different tattva from matter. Its svarūpa must be different from that of matter. What is the difference? Please see this analysis.
One sees many qualities in any material object and it can be described in many ways, but the quality of desire is not present in it. Thus the quality of being a knower also is not present in material objects. No matter how much a jīva is contracted, these two qualities are not covered. They must manifest. Among material objects, some may move. Though that may be its main characteristic, it cannot move by its own will. On its own it cannot move. When several actions of the material guṇas are combined, fiery objects make other objects move and they also move. But one does not see in the fire actions of its own will. The conscious entity, though restricted by matter to a large degree in insects, etc., shows qualities of free will. The ant, moving about, considers and then goes on a particular path. The abilities to judge and desire are by nature independent. Since one does not see these qualities in material objects and only in conscious entities, there is no doubt that knowledge endowed with free will is the svarūpa of consciousness. The conclusion is that the conscious entity has a sense of ‘I’, knowledge with free will and bliss as its function. Though entering into the material world, the jīva does not give up its svarūpa and function at all.
phalguṁ nirarthakaṁ viddhi sarvaṁ jaḍa-mayaṁ jagat
bahirmukhasya jīvasya gṛham eva purātanam ||12||
Know that the material universe is insignificant and meaningless. It is ancient and serves as a house for the jīvas averse to the Lord.
The material world is completely insignificant and worthless. It is an ancient prison for the jīvas averse to the Lord. Please consider what Vyāsa saw in his heart purified by bhakti, when at Nārada’s instruction he sat in samādhi.
bhakti-yogena manasi samyak praṇihite ‘male
apaśyat puruṣaṁ pūrṇaṁ māyāṁ ca tad-apāśrayām
“In that mind which was undisturbed because it was pure from the performance of bhakti, he saw Lord Krşņa, complete with all his energies and spiritual expansions, and also saw māyā who took shelter behind the Lord.”
yayā sammohito jiva ātmānaṁ tri-guṇātmakam
paro’pi manute ‘narthaṁ tat-kṛtaṁ cābhipadyate
“Bewildered by that māyā, the jīva, though separate from the three guṇas, considers himself made of the three guṇas and takes on material existence created by the guṇas.”
anarthopaśamaṁ sākṣād bhakti-yogam adhokṣaje
“Vyāsa saw bhakti-yoga to the Lord which effectively destroys jīva’s saṁsāra.” (S.B. 1.7.4-6)
When Vyāsa’s mind was purified by bhakti, he saw three tattvas. The first tattva was the complete puruşa Kṛsna. The second tattva was māyā under his shelter. The third tattva was the jīva bewildered by māyā, though it is a superior tattva to māyā.
The third tattva, the jīva, though a conscious particle, thinking itself to be made of the māyā’s three guṇas, thinks that all the obstacles created by the guņas are created by himself. He saw that the only way of relief from the obstacles was bhakti to Kṛşņa, who is spiritual, beyond material senses. Actually the material universe made of māyā is insignificant and meaningless for the jīva, a conscious particle. Why does the jīva remain in the insignificant universe? The answer is that the material universe acts as an ancient house for the inimical jīvas. It is noticed that only the jīvas averse to the Lord enter the material universe. All the nitya-mukta jīvas do not enter the material world on the strength of their accepting Kṛşņa. They remain in the spiritual world.
Māyā-śakti takes shelter of Krsna. Just as darkness hides far away from the sun, māyā, situated far from Krşņa, takes inferior shelter outside the spiritual realm. Attracted to the variety in the material guṇas of the material universe, the inimical jīva becomes bewildered by māyā. Actually the jīvas is beyond the guṇas. Bewildered, accepting the guṇas, the jīva thinks he is enjoying the worthless objects of the three guṇas. The aversion is such that if the jīva, a conscious particle, maintains a vision of the spiritual world, he does not become averse to the Lord. In focusing his vision on the material sphere away from the spiritual sphere, he becomes averse to Kṛṣṇa.
deśa-kālādikaṁ sarvaṁ māyayā vikṛtaṁ sadā
māyātītasya viśvasya sarvaṁ tac cit-svarūpakam ||13|||
Place, time and other factors are all distorted by māyā at all times. Everything in the world beyond māyā has a spiritual svarūpa.
What is the relationship between the spiritual world beyond māyā and the material world made of māyā? In response it should be said that the place, time and other factors in the material world are a distortion of those in the spiritual world. The place, time, etc., that exist in the spiritual world beyond māyā have a svarūpa of consciousness and are thus pure. In the distorted place, one sees many inferior elements which obstruct happiness, caused by being far or near. In material time there is past, present and future. By this division many types of deficiencies and suffering arise. All the materials in the material universe are full of such inferior qualities. In other words, the whole material world is disgusting. The place, time and objects of the spiritual world are all spiritual (conscious), all excellent, all suitable for attaining prema. There is no trace of matter. This is nicely explained in the eight chapter of Chāndogya Upanişad (8.1.1-8.4.2):
atha yad idam asmin brahma-pure daharaṁ puṇḍarīkaṁ
veśma daharo’sminn antarākāśaḥ tasmin yad antas tad
anveṣṭavyaṁ tad vāva vijijñāsitavyam iti
“In the city of Brahman, there is a lotus-like abode and a space (ākāśa). One should seek what is within that space. That is to be realized. In that lotus space, one should contemplate and meditate upon the ākāśa and what is within that.”
tañ cet brūyuḥ–yad idaṁ asmin brahma-pure daharaṁ puṇḍarīkaṁ
veśma daharo ‘sminn antarākāśaḥ, kiṁ tad atra vidyate yad
anveṣṭavyaṁ yad vāva vijijñāsitavyam iti, sa brūyāt
“If the student asks, “What should be sought and realized in the ākāśa in the lotus space in the city of Brahman?” The teacher should reply as follows.”
yāvān vā ayam ākāśas tāvān eṣo’ntar hṛdaya ākāśaḥ ubhe
asmin dyāvā pṛthivī antar eva samāhite ubhāv agniś ca vāyuś ca
sūryācandramasāv ubhau vidyun nakșatrāņi yac cāsyehāsti
yac ca nāsti, sarvaṁ tad asmin samāhitam iti
“The ākāśa in the heart is as vast as the external ākāśa. In this ākāśa within the heart exist both heaven and earth, both fire and air, the sun and moon, lightning, and the constellations. What exists externally and does not exist externally exists within that space in the heart.”
tañ cet brūyuḥ – asmiṁś ced idaṁ brahma-pure sarvaṁ samāhitaṁ
sarvāṇi ca bhūtāni sarve ca kāmāḥ, yadainajjarāvāpnoti
pradhvaṁsate vā kiṁ tato’tiśiṣyata iti
“The student may ask, ‘If in that city of Brahman everything-all beings and all enjoyables, exist there, what remains when the body ages and is destroyed?’”
sa brūyāt – nāsya jarayaitaj jīryati, na vadhenāsya hanyate; etat satyam brahma-puram
asmim kāmāḥ samāhitāḥ eṣa ātmā ‘pahatapāpmā vijaro
vimṛtyur visoko vijighatso ‘pipāsaḥ satya-kāmaḥ satya-saṅkalpaḥ
yathā hy eveha prajā anvāviśanti yathānuśāsanaṁ yaṁ yam antabhikāmā
bhavanti yaṁ jana-padaṁ yaṁ kṣetra-bhāgaṁ taṁ tam evopajīvanti
“The teacher should answer thus. “This Brahman, daharākāśa, does not wither by old age of the body. It does not die when the body dies. This is the unchanging city of Brahman. In this Brahman are all auspicious qualities. This ātmā has no sin, no old age, no death, no suffering, no hunger, and no thirst. All his desires are fulfilled. Everything manifests by his will. Just like citizens, following the king and obeying his orders and maintain their lives by objects that they request, such as a certain country and piece of land, in this life, so they live in the next world (under another person’s control).”
tad yatheha karma-cito lokaḥ kṣīyate, evam evāmutra puṇya-cito lokaḥ kṣīyate
tad ya ihātmānam ananuvidya vrajanty etāṁś
ca satyān kāmān, teṣāṁ sarveṣu lokeṣv akāmacāro bhavati
“Just as in this world the environment earned by pious acts is destroyed, in the next world also the planet earned by pious acts is destroyed. Those people who, without knowing the Lord who has eternal auspicious qualities, go to the next world, and do not wander as they please in all worlds.”
sa yadi pitṛ-loka-kāmo bhavati, saṅkalpād evāsya pitaraḥ
samuttiṣṭhanti, tena pity-lokena saṁpanno mahīyate
“If he desires to see one of his departed ancestors, by his will that person arrives. With him, he is worshipped.”
atha yadi mātṛ-loka-kāmo bhavati, saṅkalpād evāsya mātaraḥ
samuttiṣṭhanti, tena māt-lokena saṁpanno mahīyate
“If he desires to see one of his mothers of previous lives, by his will that person arrives. With her, he is worshipped.”
atha yadi bhrātṛ-loka-kāmo bhavati, saṅkalpād evāsya bhrātaraḥ
samuttiṣṭhanti, tena bhrātṛ-lokena saṁpanno mahīyate
“If he desires to see one of his departed brothers, by his will that person arrives. With him, he is worshipped.”
atha yadi svasṛ-loka-kāmo bhavati, saṅkalpād evāsya svasāraḥ
samuttiṣṭhanti, tena svasy-lokena sampanno mahīyate
“If he desires to see one of his departed sisters, by his will that person arrives. With her, he is worshipped.”
atha yadi sakhi-loka-kāmo bhavati, saṅkalpād evāsya sakhāyaḥ
samuttiṣṭhanti, tena sakhi-lokena saṁpanno mahīyate
“If he desires to see one of his friends, by his will that person arrives. With him, he is worshipped.”
atha yadi gandha-mālya-loka-kāmo bhavati, saṅkalpādevāsya gandha-mālye
samuttiṣṭhataḥ, tena gandhamālya-lokena saṁpanno mahīyate
“If he desires perfumes and garlands, by his will, they arrive. Endowed with perfumes and garlands, he is worshipped.”
atha yady anna-pāna-loka-kāmo bhavati, saṅkalpād evāsya annapāne
samuttiṣṭhataḥ, tenānnapāna-lokena saṁpanno mahīyate
“If he desires to see food and drink, by his will, they arrive. Endowed with them, he is worshipped.”
atha yadi gīta-vāditra-loka-kāmo bhavati, saṅkalpād evāsya gīta-vāditre
samuttiṣṭhataḥ, tena gīta-vāditra-lokena saṁpanno mahīyate
“If he desires songs and music, by his will, they arrive. Endowed with songs and music, he is worshipped.”
atha yadi strī-loka-kāmo bhavati, sankalpād evāsya striyaḥ
samuttiṣṭhanti, tena strī-lokena saṁpanno mahīyate
“If he desires women, by his will, they arrive. Endowed with women, he is worshipped.”
yaṁ yam antam abhikāmo bhavati, yaṁ kāmam kāmayate, so ‘sya
saṅkalpād eva samuttiṣṭhati, tena saṁpanno mahīyate
“Whatever object he desires, whatever he desires, by his will, that arrives. Endowed with that, he is worshipped.”
ta ime satyāh kāmā anṛtāpidhānāh, teṣām satyānāṁ satām anṛtam
apidhānam, yo yo hy asyetaḥ praiti, na tam iha darśanāya labhate
“These auspicious qualities are covered by karma. The existence of these qualities is covered by karma. One cannot see here that person who has departed from here.”
atha ye cāsyeha jīvā ye ca pretā yac cānyad icchan na labhate, sarvaṁ
tad atra gatvā vindate, atra hy asyaite satyāḥ kāmā anṛtāpidhānāḥ
tad yathā hiraṇya-nidhiṁ nihitam akṣetrajñā upary upari sañcaranto
na vindeyuḥ, evam evemāḥ sarvāḥ prajā ahar-ahar gacchantya
evaṁ brahma-lokaṁ na vindanti; anṛtena hi pratyūḍhāḥ
“Attaining the Lord, daharākāśa, one attains all those persons living or dead which one desired but did not attain. Here, those qualities of the Lord are covered by karma. People, ignorant of its location, wander about over a treasure of gold placed there, and do not obtain it. Similarly, people daily go to the Lord but do not attain him. They are covered by karma.”
sa vā eṣa ātmā hṛdi, tasyaitad eva niruktaṁ hṛdy ayam iti, tasmād
dhṛdayam, ahar ahar vā evaṁvit svargaṁ lokam eti
“The Lord is in the heart. Thus the word hṛdayam means “he (ayam) is in the heart (hṛdi).” He who knows this attains the Lord daily.”
atha ya eșa saṁprasādo ‘smāc charīrāt samutthāya paraṁ jyotir
upasaṁpadya svena rūpeṇābhiniṣpadyate, eșa ātmeti hovācaitad amṛtam
abhayam etad brahmetis tasya ha vā etasya brahmaṇo nāma satyam iti
“This jīva, leaving the body, attaining the Lord, manifests his own form. This is the Lord. This Lord is immortal and without fear. This is Brahman. The name of Brahman is satyam.” Thus spoke Prajāpati.”
tāni ha vā etāni trīnyakṣarāņi sat ti yam iti, tad yat sat, tadamṛtam; atha yat ti, tanmartyam;
atha yad yam, tenobhe yacchatil yad anenobhe
yacchati, tasmāt yam, ahar ahar vā evaṁvit svargaṁ lokam eti
“The word satyam has three syllables: sat ti and yam. Sat is the immortal. Ti is the mortal. Yam is that which regulates both. He is called yam because he regulates the two. He who knows this attains the Lord.”
atha ya ātmā sa setur vidhṛtir eṣāṁ lokānām asaṁbhedāya, naitaṁ setum
ahorātre tarato na jarā na mrtyuḥ, na śoko na sukṛtaṁ na duşkṛtaṁ
sarve pāpmāno’to nivartante apahatapāpmā hy eșa brahma-lokaḥ
“The Lord is an embankment, a barrier, so that the worlds do not mix. Day and night do not touch the Lord, nor do old age or death, lamentation, pious acts or sinful acts. All sins turn from him since the Lord is devoid of all sin.”
tasmād vā etaṁ setuṁ tīrtvā’ndhassan anandho bhavati; viddhassan aviddho bhavati
upatāpī san anupatāpī bhavati tasmād vā etaṁ setuṁ tīrtvā
api naktam ahar evābhiniṣpadyate, sakṛd vibhāto hy evaişa brahma-lokaḥ
“Because the Lord is devoid of all sin, attaining the Lord, the blind becomes free of blindness, the wounded becomes free of wounds and the sick person becomes free of sickness. Attaining the Lord, night becomes day. The Lord is always effulgent.”
cic-chakteḥ para-tattvasya svabhāvas trividhaḥ smṛtaḥ
sva-svabhāvas tathā jīva-svabhāvo māyikas tathā ||14||
The nature of the cit-śakti of supreme tattva has three types: its own nature, the nature of the jīvas and the nature of māyā.
The svarūpa of the supreme tattva is Bhagavān. His cit-śakti has three types of nature: his own spiritual nature, the nature of the jīva and the nature of māyā. His spiritual nature has unlimited variety. Māyāvādīs do not accept variety in the spiritual nature. They say that variety is the nature of māyā. “Giving up the nature of māyā, on attaining the spiritual nature variety remains far away. When the jīva becomes situated in this state, due to absence of variety the jīva merges into oneness.” Where is the māyāvādī’s basis for such logic?
The answer is that it is mere opinion. One cannot say what scripture or from what logic the māyāvādī draws this conclusion. If one sees the spiritual variety mentioned in Chāndogya Upanişad as quoted above it is apparent that in the spiritual world the Lord has his svarūpa, the jīvas have their svarūpa, and there are places, moon and sun, light, rivers, etc., manifested in an excellent manner. Variety of rasa is the nature of the spiritual world.
The nature of the jīva is taţastha, situated at the juncture of māyā and the spiritual world. The jīva is suitable to be controlled by māyā and suitable to be controlled by the cit-śakti.
The nature māyā is that it is a distortion of the spiritual nature. It produces the gross and subtle bodies for the inimical jīvas.
tiṣṭhann api jaḍādhāre cit-svabhāva-parāyaṇaḥ
vartate yo mahā-bhāgaḥ sva-svabhāva-paro hi saḥ ||15||
Though situated in the material world, the jīva surrendering to the spiritual nature is most fortunate and becomes fixed in his nature.
The fortunate jīva who, though situated in the material world of māyā, surrenders to the spiritual nature, which is his real nature. Thus he becomes qualified to give up māyā.
cid-anuśīlanaṁ nāma dvitīyo’nubhavaḥ
(Thus ends the book)