Bhagavad-Gita-Rasika-ranjanaBhagavad-gita Introduction
Bhagavad-Gita-Rasika-ranjanaBhagavad-gita - Chapter Two

 Arjuna-viṣāda Yogaḥ
(The State of Arjuna’s Despair)


With the Rasika Rañjana Commentary by Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura

TEXT 1
dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca
dharma-kṣetre kuru-kṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś caiva kim akurvata sañjaya

Dhṛtarāṣṭra said – O Sañjaya, assembling at Kurukṣetra, the land of dharma, and desiring war, what did my sons headed by Duryodhana, and Yudhiṣṭhira and all the Pāṇḍavas, do?

 TEXT 2-3
sañjaya uvāca
dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṁ vyūḍhaṁ duryodhanas tadā
ācāryam upasaṅgamya rājā vacanam abravīt

paśyaitāṁ pāṇḍu-putrāṇām ācārya mahatīṁ camūm
vyūḍhāṁ drupada-putreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā

Sañjaya said – Mahārāja, after seeing the formation of the Pāṇḍavas’ vast army, King Duryodhana went to Droṇācārya and said, “Ācārya, see the great army of the Pāṇḍavas. It has been very expertly arranged by your wise disciple, Dhṛṣṭadyumna, the son of Drupada.”


TEXT 4-6
atra śūrā maheṣvāsā bhīmārjuna samā yudhi
yuyudhāno virāṭaś ca drupadaś ca mahā-rathaḥ

dhṛṣṭaketuś cekitānaḥ kāśi-rājaś ca vīryavān
purujit kuntibhojaś ca śaibyaś ca narapuṅgavaḥ

yudhāmanyuś ca vikrānta uttamaujāś ca vīryavān
saubhadro draupadeyāś ca sarva eva mahā-rathāḥ 

Great warriors such as Bhīma, Arjuna and similar heroes are present in that army.  Yuyudhāna (also known as Sātyaki), Virāṭa, the great charioteer Drupada, Dhṛṣṭaketu, Cekitāna, the mighty Kāśīrāja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja, Śaibya, the best of men, the powerful Yudhāmanyu, the valiant Uttamauja, Abhimanyu, the son of Subhadrā, and the five sons of Draupadī – all of these are very great charioteers.


TEXT 7
asmākaṁ tu viśiṣṭā ye tān nibodha dvijottama
nāyakā mama sainyasya saṁjñārthaṁ tān bravīmi te

 O guru, for your information, we will now glorify the names of all those heroes that are in our army.


TEXT 8-9
bhavān bhīṣmaś ca karṇaś ca kṛpaś ca samitiñjayaḥ
aśvatthāmā vikarṇaś ca saumadattis tathaiva ca

anye ca bahavaḥ śūrāmadarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ
nānā śastra praharaṇāḥ sarve yuddha viśāradāḥ 

 Yourself Bhīṣma, as well as Karṇa, Kṛpācārya, Aśvathāma, Vikarṇa, the son of Somadatta (Bhūriśravā), and Jayadratha are always victorious in war. Apart from these, there are many other brave men with various weapons, who are very expert in combat that are prepared to give up their lives for me.


TEXT 10
aparyāptaṁ tad asmākaṁ balaṁ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam
paryāptaṁ tvidameteṣāṁ balaṁ bhīmābhirakṣitam 

Our army, protected by Bhīṣma, is not strong enough, but the army of the Pāṇḍavas, protected by Bhīmasena, is vast.


TEXT 11
ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathā bhāgam avasthitāḥ
bhīṣmam evābhirakṣantu bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi 

 At this time, all of you should protect Grandsire Bhīṣma by remaining at the front of your own military formations.


TEXT 12
tasya sañjanayanharṣaṁ kuru-vṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ
siṁhanādaṁ vinadyoccaiḥ śaṅkhaṁ dadhmau pratāpavān 

 Then to the delight of Duryodhana, the Kuru elder grandsire Bhīṣma, loudly blew his conch-shell, which was like the roar of a lion.


TEXT 13
tataḥ śaṅkhāś ca bheryaś ca paṇavānaka gomukhāḥ
sahasaivābhyahanyanta sa śabdas tumulo’bhavat 

 Then, conch-shells, trumpets, drums and horns were suddenly sounded and a tumultuous sound arose.


TEXT 14
tataḥ śvetairhayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau
mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaś caiva divyau śaṅkhau pradadhmatuḥ 

 Meanwhile, Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Dhanañjaya, riding in a chariot drawn by white horses, blew their divine conch shells.


TEXT 15-18
pāñcajanyaṁ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṁ dhanañjayaḥ
pauṇḍraṁ dadhmau mahā-śaṅkhaṁ bhīma-karmā vṛkodaraḥ

ananta-vijayaṁ rājā kuntī-putro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ
nakulaḥ sahadevaś ca sughoṣa maṇi-puṣpakau 

kāśyaś ca parameṣvāsaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca mahā-rathaḥ
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaś ca sātyakiś cāparājitaḥ 

drupado draupadeyāś ca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivī-pate
saubhadraś ca mahā-bāhuḥ śaṅkhān-dadhmuḥ pṛthak pṛthak 

 Hṛṣīkeśa (Śrī Kṛṣṇa) blew His conch-shell, Pāñcajanya, Arjuna blew his conch shell, Devadatta and Bhīmasena, who performs formidable feats, blew his mighty conch-shell named Pauṇḍra.

King Yudhiṣṭhira, the son of Kuntī, blew his conch-shell, Ananta-vijaya, and Nakula and Sahadeva blew their conch-shells, Sughosa and Maṇi-puṣpaka. O Dhṛṭarāṣṭra, sovereign of the earth, the great archer, the King of Kāśī, the great charioteers, Śikhaṇḍi, Dhṛṣṭadyumna,  and Virāṭa, the invincible Sātyaki, Drupada, the five sons of Draupadī and Abhimanyu, the mighty-armed son of Subhadrā, all sounded their different conch-shells.


TEXT 19
sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṁ hṛdayāni vyadārayat
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṁ caiva tumulo’bhyanunādayan

 The tumultuous sound of all these conch-shells echoed throughout the earth and the sky and tore the hearts of the sons of Dhṛṭarāṣṭra asunder.

 TEXT 20
atha vyavasthitāndṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān kapidhvajaḥ
pravṛtte śastrasampāte dhanurudyamya pāṇḍavaḥ
hṛṣīkeśaṁ tadā vākyamidamāha mahīpate

 O Mahārāja, at that time, Dhanañjaya, who was seated upon a chariot with Hanumān on its flag, took up his bow and seeing the sons of Dhṛṭarāṣṭra situated on the battlefield, said this to Śrī Kṛṣṇa.


TEXT 21-23
arjuna uvāca
senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me’cyuta
yāvad etān nirīkṣe’haṁ yoddhu-kāmān avasthitān
kair mayā saha yoddhavyam asmin raṇa-samudyame 

 yotsyamānāna vekṣe’haṁ ya ete’tra samāgatāḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher yuddhe priya-cikīrṣavaḥ

 Arjuna said, “O Acyuta, kindly place the chariot between the two armies. I wish to observe who has assembled here on this battlefield and who I will fight with. I wish to see who within that army has come to fulfill the desires of Duryodhana.

TEXT 24-25
sañjaya uvāca
evam ukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam 

bhīṣma droṇa pramukhataḥ sarveṣāṁ ca mahīkṣitām
uvāca pārtha paśyaitān samavetān kurūn iti

 Sañjaya said, – O Bhārata (Dhṛtarāṣṭra), upon Guḍākeśa Pārtha saying this to Kṛṣṇa, He placed that excellent chariot in the midst of both armies. He said, “Observe the Kauravas, including Bhīṣma and Droṇa, gathered here for the purpose of war.”


TEXT 26
tatrāpaśyat sthitān pārthaḥ pitṛn atha pitāmahān
ācāryān mātulān bhrātṛn putrān pautrān sakhīṁs tathā
śvaśurān suhṛdaś caiva senayor ubhayor api

 Then Arjuna saw paternal uncles, grandfathers, ācāryas, maternal uncles, brothers-in-law, fathers-in-law, friends and benefactors present in the midst of the armies on both sides.


TEXT 27
tān samīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvān bandhūn avasthitān
kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo viṣīdann idam abravīt

Seeing all his friends and relatives on the battlefield, Arjuna, the son of Kuntī, being overcome with grief and compassion, spoke as follows.


TEXT 28
arjuna uvāca
dṛṣṭve maṁ sva-janaṁ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṁ samupasthitam
sīdanti mama gātrāṇi mukhaṁ ca pariśuṣyati

 Arjuna said: O Kṛṣṇa, seeing all these relatives here desiring to fight, all my limbs are becoming numb and my mouth is becoming dry.


TEXT 29
vepathuś ca śarīre me romaharṣaś ca jāyate
gāṇḍīvaṁ sraṁsate hastāt tvak caiva paridahyate

My body is shaking and my hair is standing on end. The Gāṇḍīva bow is slipping from my hands, and my skin is burning.


TEXT 30
na ca śaknomy avasthātuṁ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ
nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava

 I cannot stand any longer and my mind is extremely confused. O Keśava, every sign that I see forebodes misfortune.


TEXT 31
na ca śreyo’nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave
na kāṅkṣe vijayaṁ kṛṣṇa na ca rājyaṁ sukhāni ca

I see no benefit in killing my relatives in battle. O Śrī Kṛṣṇa, I no longer desire victory, a kingdom, nor happiness.


TEXT 32-34
kiṁ no rājyena govinda kiṁ bhogair jīvitena vā
yeṣām arthe kāṅkṣitaṁ no rājyaṁ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca

ta ime’vasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṁs tyaktvā dhanāni ca
ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās tathaiva ca pitā-mahāḥ

mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ śyālāḥ sambandhinas tathā
etān na hantum icchāmi ghnato’pi madhusūdana

 O Govinda, what is the necessity of a kingdom? What is the necessity of enjoying happiness? And what is the necessity of even life? Because those for whom we desire a kingdom and happiness are all gathered here at this time. O Madhusūdana, when ācāryas, fathers, sons, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and other relatives are all determined to give up their lives in this battle. then why should I desire to kill them, even if they kill me?

TEXT 35
api trailokya rājyasya hetoḥ kiṁ nu mahī-kṛte
nihatya dhārtarāṣṭrān naḥ kā prītiḥ syāj janārdana

 O Janārdana, what to speak of this world, even if I were given supremacy over the three worlds, what would be gained by killing the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra?


TEXT 36
pāpam evāśrayed asmān hatvaitān ātatāyinaḥ
tasmān nārhā vayaṁ hantuṁ dhārtarāṣṭrān sa-bāndhavān
sva-janaṁ hi kathaṁ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava 

 Although it is correct according to the rāja-nīti śāstra (texts concerning political science) to kill aggressors, if we kill our ācāryas, even if they are aggressors, it would be a transgression according to the dharma-śāstra (texts concerning dharma). Thus, we are not able to slay the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and their friends. O Mādhava, what happiness will be gained by killing our own relatives?


TEXT 37-38
yady apyete na paśyanti lobhopahata-cetasaḥ
kula-kṣaya-kṛtaṁ doṣaṁ mitra-drohe ca pātakam 

kathaṁ na jñeyam asmābhiḥ pāpād asmān nivartitum
kula-kṣaya-kṛtaṁ doṣaṁ prapaśyadbhir janārdana 

 Bewildered by greed, Duryodhana and others are not able to realise the mistake of destroying one’s family, nor do they realise the vice involved in feeling enmity towards one’s friends. But Janārdana, we see the faults incurred by killing one’s family, so should we not cease from performing such an immoral act?


TEXT 39
kula-kṣaye praṇaśyanti kula-dharmāḥ sanātanāḥ
dharme naṣṭe kulaṁ kṛtsnam adharmo’bhibhavaty uta

 When the family is destroyed, eternal family dharma is also destroyed, and when family dharma is destroyed then the remaining family members are overcome by adharma.


TEXT 40
adharmābhibhavāt kṛṣṇa praduṣyanti kula-striyaḥ
strīṣu duṣṭāsu vārṣṇeya jāyate varṇa-saṅkaraḥ 

 O Kṛṣṇa, descendant of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty, when adharma becomes strong, the women of the family become contaminated, and when the women become contaminated, the result is the birth of illegitimate offspring.


TEXT 41
saṅkaro narakāyaiva kula-ghnānāṁ kulasya ca
patanti pitaro hy eṣāṁ lupta-piṇḍodaka-kriyāḥ  

 When illegitimate offspring are produced, then the family and the destroyers of the family all go to hell. Within such a family, the forefathers in Pitṛloka do not receive piṇḍa and udakakriyā (ceremonial offerings of food and water) and they fall down.


TEXT 42
doṣair etaiḥ kula-ghnānāṁ varṇa-saṅkara-kārakaiḥ
utsādyante jāti-dharmāḥ kula-dharmāś ca śāśvatāḥ 

 By engaging in immoral acts, the aforementioned illegitimate progeny destroy eternal family dharma and jāti-dharma (prescribed activities according to one’s social position) deteriorates.


TEXT 43
utsanna-kula-dharmāṇāṁ manuṣyāṇāṁ janārdana
narake niyataṁ vāso bhavatīty anuśuśruma 

 O Janārdana, I have heard that all those humans whose family dharma has been destroyed are doomed to eternally reside in hell.


TEXT 44
aho bata mahat-pāpaṁ kartuṁ vyavasitā vayam
yad rājya-sukha-lobhena hantuṁ sva-janam udyatāḥ

 Alas! what a miserable thing! We have become so determined to engage in such great impiety by killing our own relatives for the sake of attaining royal pleasures!


TEXT 45
yadi mām apratīkāram aśastraṁ śastra-pāṇayaḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyus tan me kṣemataraṁ bhavet

 Even if I were without weapons and did not protest, it would be better for me to be killed in battle by their armed forces.


TEXT 46
sañjaya uvāca
evam uktvārjunaḥ saṅkhye rathopastha upāviśat
visṛjya saśaraṁ cāpaṁ śoka-saṁvigna mānasaḥ 

 Speaking these words, Arjuna abandoned his bow and arrows, and with his mind bewildered by lamentation, he sat down on his chariot.


iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṁ saṁhitāyāṁ
vaiyāsikyāṁ bhīṣma-parvāṇi

śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsūpaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṁ yoga-śāstre śrī kṛṣṇārjuna-saṁvāde
arjuna-viṣāda-yogaḥ nāma prathamo’dhyāyaḥ

Thus ends Chapter One entitled Arjuna-viṣāda Yoga from the conversation between Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna in the Upaniṣad known as Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā, the yoga-śāstra of divine knowledge, from the Bhīṣma-parva of Mahābhārata, the literature revealed by Vyāsa in one hundred thousand verses.

 

Thus ends the translation and commentary of the first chapter.

Bhagavad-Gita-Rasika-ranjanaBhagavad-gita Introduction
Bhagavad-Gita-Rasika-ranjanaBhagavad-gita - Chapter Two

Share this chapter!

Read More Books by Bhaktivinoda Thakur