dharma-kṣetre kuru-kṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś caiva kim akurvata sañjaya
Dhṛtarāṣṭra said – O Sañjaya, assembling at Kurukṣetra, the land of dharma, and desiring war, what did my sons headed by Duryodhana, and Yudhiṣṭhira and all the Pāṇḍavas, do?
dṛṣṭvā tu pāṇḍavānīkaṁ vyūḍhaṁ duryodhanas tadā
ācāryam upasaṅgamya rājā vacanam abravīt
paśyaitāṁ pāṇḍu-putrāṇām ācārya mahatīṁ camūm
vyūḍhāṁ drupada-putreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā
Sañjaya said – Mahārāja, after seeing the formation of the Pāṇḍavas’ vast army, King Duryodhana went to Droṇācārya and said, “Ācārya, see the great army of the Pāṇḍavas. It has been very expertly arranged by your wise disciple, Dhṛṣṭadyumna, the son of Drupada.”
atra śūrā maheṣvāsā bhīmārjuna samā yudhi
yuyudhāno virāṭaś ca drupadaś ca mahā-rathaḥ
dhṛṣṭaketuś cekitānaḥ kāśi-rājaś ca vīryavān
purujit kuntibhojaś ca śaibyaś ca narapuṅgavaḥ
yudhāmanyuś ca vikrānta uttamaujāś ca vīryavān
saubhadro draupadeyāś ca sarva eva mahā-rathāḥ
Great warriors such as Bhīma, Arjuna and similar heroes are present in that army. Yuyudhāna (also known as Sātyaki), Virāṭa, the great charioteer Drupada, Dhṛṣṭaketu, Cekitāna, the mighty Kāśīrāja, Purujit, Kuntibhoja, Śaibya, the best of men, the powerful Yudhāmanyu, the valiant Uttamauja, Abhimanyu, the son of Subhadrā, and the five sons of Draupadī – all of these are very great charioteers.
asmākaṁ tu viśiṣṭā ye tān nibodha dvijottama
nāyakā mama sainyasya saṁjñārthaṁ tān bravīmi te
O guru, for your information, we will now glorify the names of all those heroes that are in our army.
bhavān bhīṣmaś ca karṇaś ca kṛpaś ca samitiñjayaḥ
aśvatthāmā vikarṇaś ca saumadattis tathaiva ca
anye ca bahavaḥ śūrāmadarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ
nānā śastra praharaṇāḥ sarve yuddha viśāradāḥ
Yourself Bhīṣma, as well as Karṇa, Kṛpācārya, Aśvathāma, Vikarṇa, the son of Somadatta (Bhūriśravā), and Jayadratha are always victorious in war. Apart from these, there are many other brave men with various weapons, who are very expert in combat that are prepared to give up their lives for me.
aparyāptaṁ tad asmākaṁ balaṁ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam
paryāptaṁ tvidameteṣāṁ balaṁ bhīmābhirakṣitam
Our army, protected by Bhīṣma, is not strong enough, but the army of the Pāṇḍavas, protected by Bhīmasena, is vast.
ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathā bhāgam avasthitāḥ
bhīṣmam evābhirakṣantu bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi
At this time, all of you should protect Grandsire Bhīṣma by remaining at the front of your own military formations.
tasya sañjanayanharṣaṁ kuru-vṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ
siṁhanādaṁ vinadyoccaiḥ śaṅkhaṁ dadhmau pratāpavān
Then to the delight of Duryodhana, the Kuru elder grandsire Bhīṣma, loudly blew his conch-shell, which was like the roar of a lion.
tataḥ śaṅkhāś ca bheryaś ca paṇavānaka gomukhāḥ
sahasaivābhyahanyanta sa śabdas tumulo’bhavat
Then, conch-shells, trumpets, drums and horns were suddenly sounded and a tumultuous sound arose.
tataḥ śvetairhayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau
mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaś caiva divyau śaṅkhau pradadhmatuḥ
Meanwhile, Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Dhanañjaya, riding in a chariot drawn by white horses, blew their divine conch shells.
pāñcajanyaṁ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṁ dhanañjayaḥ
pauṇḍraṁ dadhmau mahā-śaṅkhaṁ bhīma-karmā vṛkodaraḥ
ananta-vijayaṁ rājā kuntī-putro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ
nakulaḥ sahadevaś ca sughoṣa maṇi-puṣpakau
kāśyaś ca parameṣvāsaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca mahā-rathaḥ
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaś ca sātyakiś cāparājitaḥ
drupado draupadeyāś ca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivī-pate
saubhadraś ca mahā-bāhuḥ śaṅkhān-dadhmuḥ pṛthak pṛthak
Hṛṣīkeśa (Śrī Kṛṣṇa) blew His conch-shell, Pāñcajanya, Arjuna blew his conch shell, Devadatta and Bhīmasena, who performs formidable feats, blew his mighty conch-shell named Pauṇḍra.
King Yudhiṣṭhira, the son of Kuntī, blew his conch-shell, Ananta-vijaya, and Nakula and Sahadeva blew their conch-shells, Sughosa and Maṇi-puṣpaka. O Dhṛṭarāṣṭra, sovereign of the earth, the great archer, the King of Kāśī, the great charioteers, Śikhaṇḍi, Dhṛṣṭadyumna, and Virāṭa, the invincible Sātyaki, Drupada, the five sons of Draupadī and Abhimanyu, the mighty-armed son of Subhadrā, all sounded their different conch-shells.
sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṁ hṛdayāni vyadārayat
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṁ caiva tumulo’bhyanunādayan
The tumultuous sound of all these conch-shells echoed throughout the earth and the sky and tore the hearts of the sons of Dhṛṭarāṣṭra asunder.
atha vyavasthitāndṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān kapidhvajaḥ
pravṛtte śastrasampāte dhanurudyamya pāṇḍavaḥ
hṛṣīkeśaṁ tadā vākyamidamāha mahīpate
O Mahārāja, at that time, Dhanañjaya, who was seated upon a chariot with Hanumān on its flag, took up his bow and seeing the sons of Dhṛṭarāṣṭra situated on the battlefield, said this to Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṁ sthāpaya me’cyuta
yāvad etān nirīkṣe’haṁ yoddhu-kāmān avasthitān
kair mayā saha yoddhavyam asmin raṇa-samudyame
yotsyamānāna vekṣe’haṁ ya ete’tra samāgatāḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher yuddhe priya-cikīrṣavaḥ
Arjuna said, “O Acyuta, kindly place the chariot between the two armies. I wish to observe who has assembled here on this battlefield and who I will fight with. I wish to see who within that army has come to fulfill the desires of Duryodhana.
evam ukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam
bhīṣma droṇa pramukhataḥ sarveṣāṁ ca mahīkṣitām
uvāca pārtha paśyaitān samavetān kurūn iti
Sañjaya said, – O Bhārata (Dhṛtarāṣṭra), upon Guḍākeśa Pārtha saying this to Kṛṣṇa, He placed that excellent chariot in the midst of both armies. He said, “Observe the Kauravas, including Bhīṣma and Droṇa, gathered here for the purpose of war.”
tatrāpaśyat sthitān pārthaḥ pitṛn atha pitāmahān
ācāryān mātulān bhrātṛn putrān pautrān sakhīṁs tathā
śvaśurān suhṛdaś caiva senayor ubhayor api
Then Arjuna saw paternal uncles, grandfathers, ācāryas, maternal uncles, brothers-in-law, fathers-in-law, friends and benefactors present in the midst of the armies on both sides.
tān samīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvān bandhūn avasthitān
kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo viṣīdann idam abravīt
Seeing all his friends and relatives on the battlefield, Arjuna, the son of Kuntī, being overcome with grief and compassion, spoke as follows.
dṛṣṭve maṁ sva-janaṁ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṁ samupasthitam
sīdanti mama gātrāṇi mukhaṁ ca pariśuṣyati
Arjuna said: O Kṛṣṇa, seeing all these relatives here desiring to fight, all my limbs are becoming numb and my mouth is becoming dry.
vepathuś ca śarīre me romaharṣaś ca jāyate
gāṇḍīvaṁ sraṁsate hastāt tvak caiva paridahyate
My body is shaking and my hair is standing on end. The Gāṇḍīva bow is slipping from my hands, and my skin is burning.
na ca śaknomy avasthātuṁ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ
nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava
I cannot stand any longer and my mind is extremely confused. O Keśava, every sign that I see forebodes misfortune.
na ca śreyo’nupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave
na kāṅkṣe vijayaṁ kṛṣṇa na ca rājyaṁ sukhāni ca
I see no benefit in killing my relatives in battle. O Śrī Kṛṣṇa, I no longer desire victory, a kingdom, nor happiness.
kiṁ no rājyena govinda kiṁ bhogair jīvitena vā
yeṣām arthe kāṅkṣitaṁ no rājyaṁ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca
ta ime’vasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṁs tyaktvā dhanāni ca
ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās tathaiva ca pitā-mahāḥ
mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ śyālāḥ sambandhinas tathā
etān na hantum icchāmi ghnato’pi madhusūdana
O Govinda, what is the necessity of a kingdom? What is the necessity of enjoying happiness? And what is the necessity of even life? Because those for whom we desire a kingdom and happiness are all gathered here at this time. O Madhusūdana, when ācāryas, fathers, sons, maternal uncles, fathers-in-law, grandsons, brothers-in-law, and other relatives are all determined to give up their lives in this battle. then why should I desire to kill them, even if they kill me?
api trailokya rājyasya hetoḥ kiṁ nu mahī-kṛte
nihatya dhārtarāṣṭrān naḥ kā prītiḥ syāj janārdana
O Janārdana, what to speak of this world, even if I were given supremacy over the three worlds, what would be gained by killing the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra?
pāpam evāśrayed asmān hatvaitān ātatāyinaḥ
tasmān nārhā vayaṁ hantuṁ dhārtarāṣṭrān sa-bāndhavān
sva-janaṁ hi kathaṁ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava
Although it is correct according to the rāja-nīti śāstra (texts concerning political science) to kill aggressors, if we kill our ācāryas, even if they are aggressors, it would be a transgression according to the dharma-śāstra (texts concerning dharma). Thus, we are not able to slay the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra and their friends. O Mādhava, what happiness will be gained by killing our own relatives?
yady apyete na paśyanti lobhopahata-cetasaḥ
kula-kṣaya-kṛtaṁ doṣaṁ mitra-drohe ca pātakam
kathaṁ na jñeyam asmābhiḥ pāpād asmān nivartitum
kula-kṣaya-kṛtaṁ doṣaṁ prapaśyadbhir janārdana
Bewildered by greed, Duryodhana and others are not able to realise the mistake of destroying one’s family, nor do they realise the vice involved in feeling enmity towards one’s friends. But Janārdana, we see the faults incurred by killing one’s family, so should we not cease from performing such an immoral act?
kula-kṣaye praṇaśyanti kula-dharmāḥ sanātanāḥ
dharme naṣṭe kulaṁ kṛtsnam adharmo’bhibhavaty uta
When the family is destroyed, eternal family dharma is also destroyed, and when family dharma is destroyed then the remaining family members are overcome by adharma.
adharmābhibhavāt kṛṣṇa praduṣyanti kula-striyaḥ
strīṣu duṣṭāsu vārṣṇeya jāyate varṇa-saṅkaraḥ
O Kṛṣṇa, descendant of the Vṛṣṇi dynasty, when adharma becomes strong, the women of the family become contaminated, and when the women become contaminated, the result is the birth of illegitimate offspring.
saṅkaro narakāyaiva kula-ghnānāṁ kulasya ca
patanti pitaro hy eṣāṁ lupta-piṇḍodaka-kriyāḥ
When illegitimate offspring are produced, then the family and the destroyers of the family all go to hell. Within such a family, the forefathers in Pitṛloka do not receive piṇḍa and udaka–kriyā (ceremonial offerings of food and water) and they fall down.
doṣair etaiḥ kula-ghnānāṁ varṇa-saṅkara-kārakaiḥ
utsādyante jāti-dharmāḥ kula-dharmāś ca śāśvatāḥ
By engaging in immoral acts, the aforementioned illegitimate progeny destroy eternal family dharma and jāti-dharma (prescribed activities according to one’s social position) deteriorates.
utsanna-kula-dharmāṇāṁ manuṣyāṇāṁ janārdana
narake niyataṁ vāso bhavatīty anuśuśruma
O Janārdana, I have heard that all those humans whose family dharma has been destroyed are doomed to eternally reside in hell.
aho bata mahat-pāpaṁ kartuṁ vyavasitā vayam
yad rājya-sukha-lobhena hantuṁ sva-janam udyatāḥ
Alas! what a miserable thing! We have become so determined to engage in such great impiety by killing our own relatives for the sake of attaining royal pleasures!
yadi mām apratīkāram aśastraṁ śastra-pāṇayaḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyus tan me kṣemataraṁ bhavet
Even if I were without weapons and did not protest, it would be better for me to be killed in battle by their armed forces.
evam uktvārjunaḥ saṅkhye rathopastha upāviśat
visṛjya saśaraṁ cāpaṁ śoka-saṁvigna mānasaḥ
Speaking these words, Arjuna abandoned his bow and arrows, and with his mind bewildered by lamentation, he sat down on his chariot.
iti śrī-mahābhārate śata-sāhasryāṁ saṁhitāyāṁ
śrīmad-bhagavad-gītāsūpaniṣatsu brahma-vidyāyāṁ yoga-śāstre śrī kṛṣṇārjuna-saṁvāde
arjuna-viṣāda-yogaḥ nāma prathamo’dhyāyaḥ
Thus ends Chapter One entitled Arjuna-viṣāda Yoga from the conversation between Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna in the Upaniṣad known as Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā, the yoga-śāstra of divine knowledge, from the Bhīṣma-parva of Mahābhārata, the literature revealed by Vyāsa in one hundred thousand verses.
Thus ends the translation and commentary of the first chapter.